Home > Archives > IJSRST151225 IJSRST-Library

A Review of Sequential Extraction Method for Lead in Samples: A Case Study of Artisanal Mines of Sokoto Basin (Zamfara State)

Authors(4) :-Y. M. Ahijjo, A.N. Baba-Kutigi, M. Momoh, A. U. Moreh

This paper reviews the speciation of Lead which is a stable trace metal with alpha and beta particle emitting radioactive isotopes known to have drawn global attention in Zamfara state and recently in Niger state all in Nigeria for poisoning thousands of villagers and leading to numerous death tolls. It is termed as a pollutant environmentally, as it could be subsequently absorbed into food chain of organisms and thereby posing a health concern to the public. Acceptable threshold of lead is also a global concern due to its potency even at lower concentration in ppm. This calls for frequent environmental assessment and consumables for a precise reference to its occurrence. This paper hence, reviews the occurrence of lead and sequential extraction method to ascertaining environmental vulnerability free of lead.
Y. M. Ahijjo, A.N. Baba-Kutigi, M. Momoh, A. U. Moreh
Radioisotope, Sequential-Extraction, Environment, Zamfara and Lead-Poisoning
  1. Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) (2010) Field News; LEAD POISONING IN ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA; Nigeria / 16.07.10. Available from corresponding website; HTTP://WWW.MSF.ORG.AU/FROM-THE-FIELD/FIELD-NEWS/FIELD- NEWS/ARTICLE/LEAD-POISONING-IN-ZAMFARA-STATE-NIGERIA.HTML.
  2. Vanguard Newspaper, 400 children death from lead poisoning, Vanguard publication, Nigerian Daily Newspaper, 2011.
  3. Okoro H. K., Fatoki O.S., Adekola F.A., Ximba B.J. and Snyman R.G., (2012).A Review of Sequential Extraction Procedures for Heavy Metals Speciation in Soil and Sediments. 1: 181. doi:10.4172/scientificreports.181
  4. Daily Trust. Category: Health Published on Tuesday, 03 March 2015 05:00 Written by Victoria Onehi & Mulikatu Mukaila
  5. Rehani N. and Haji R. (2011) Reducing Mercury Exposures and Transitioning Miners Away from Mercury Use, Anglophone West Africa Regional Awareness-Raising Workshop on Mercury in Artisanal & Small-Scale Mining, http://www.unep.org/hazardoussubstances/Portals/9/Mercury/Documents/ASGM/Nigeria/Presentations/Tech%20session/Haji_Rehani_Reducing%20emissions%20&Transitioning%20from%20mercury.pdf.
  6. Nero, A.V., Schwehr, M.B., Nazaroff, W.W., and Revzan, K.L. (2012). Distribution of Airborne Radon-222 Concentrations in U.S. Homes. Science 234: 992-997. physical model for the transport. Geophysics 47, 1444-1452.
  7. Kogbe, C. A. (1982). Geology of the Southeastern (Sokoto) Sector of the Iullumineden Basin. Bulletin, 32, 420.
  8. Kogbe, C.A. (1972). Geology of the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary sediments of the Nigerian sector of the Illummeden Basin (West Africa), Geol. Rdsch. 62, 197 - 211.
  9. Akande, S.O , Fakorede, O. and Muckey, A. (1988). Geology and genesis of gold bearing quartz veins at Birni Yauri and Okolom in the Pan-African domain of western Nigeria. Geologie en Mijnbouw 67. Pages 41-51.
  10. Danbatta, U.A. (2008). Precambrian crustal development in the northwestern part of Zuru schist belt, northwestern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. 44 (1), pages 45-56.
  11. Dan'Azumi S. and Bichi M.H. (2009). Industrial Pollution and Heavy Metals Profile in North-Western States, Nigeria. Accessed at www.trisanita.org/asespaper2010/ases03v5n1y2010.pdf (8 August 2010).
  12. Umar A.M., Onimisi M.Y., Jonah S.A. (2012). Baseline measurement of natural radioactivity in soil, vegetation and water in the industrial district of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology.;2(3):266-274.
  13. Bubb JM, Lester JN (1991) The impact of heavy metals on lowland rivers and the implications for man and the environment. Sci Total Environ 100 Spec No: 207-233.
  14. Idris AM, Eltayeb MAH, Potgieter-Vermaak SS, Grieken R, Potgieter JH (2007). Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Sudanese harbours along the Red Sea coast. Microchemical. J 87: 104-112.
  15. Vijver, M.G., Van Gestel, C.A.M., Lanno, R.P., Van Straalen, N.M., Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M., 2004. Internal metal sequestration and its ecolotoxicological relevance: a review. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38,4705-4712.
  16. Jin, C.W., Zheng, S.J., He, Y.F., Zhou, G.D., Zhou, Z.X., 2005. Lead contamination in tea garden soils and factors affecting its bioavailability. Chemosphere 59, 1151-1159.
  17. Powell, K.J., Brown, P.L., Byrne, R.H., Gajda, T., Hefter, G., Sjoberg, S., Wanner, H., 2005. Chemical speciation of environmentally significant heavy metals with inorganic ligands. Part1: The Hg2+, Cl_, OH_, CO2_ 3 , SO2_4 , and PO3_4 aqueous systems. Pure Appl. Chem. 77, 739-800.
  18. Silveira M.L., Alleoni L.R.F., O’Connor G.A., Chang A.C.(2006). Heavy metal sequential extraction methods A modification for tropical soils, 0045-6535/$ - see front matter _ 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.01.018.
  19. Quevauviller P, Olazabal J (2002) Links between the water framework directive, the thematic strategy Soil protection and Research trends with focus on pollution issues. J. of soil and Sed 3: 243-244.
  20. Sahuquillo A, Rigol A, Rauret G (2003) Overview of the use of leaching, extraction tests for risk assessment of trace metals in contaminated soils and sediments. Trend Analytical Chemistry 22: 152-159.
  21. Ferna'ndeza E., Jime'neza R., Lallenab A.M., Aguilara J., (2004). Evaluation of the BCR sequential extraction procedure applied for two unpolluted Spanish soils. Environmental Pollution 131 (2004) 355e364.
  22. Pickering, W.F., 1995. General strategies for speciation. In: Ure, A.M., Davidson, C.M. (Eds.), Chemical Speciation in the Environment. Chapman & Hall.
  23. Tessier A, Campbel PGC, Bisson M (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of Particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51: 844-851.
  24. Templeton DM, Ariese F, Cornels R (2001) IUPAC guidelines for terms related to chemical Speciation and Fractionation of elements. Pure. Appl. Chem 72: 1453-1470.
  25. Bordas F, Bourg ACM (1998) A critical evaluation of sample for storage of Contaminated Sediments to Be investigated for the potential mobility of their heavy metal load. Water. Air. Soil. Poll 103: 137-149.
  26. Beckett, P.H.T., 1989. The use of extractants in studies on trace metals in soils, sewage sludges, and sludge-treated soils. Adv. Soil Sci. 9, 143-176.
  27. Luigi M., Patrick B., John E.B., Nicole G., Rudie H., Alexander K., Ivan K., Gennady L., Marilyne L., Raul P., Francoise S., and Mark Z., (2008). Testing Models for Predicting the Behaviour of Radionuclides in Aquatic Systems. Applied Radiation and Isotope Journal, 66 (2008) 1736-1740.
  28. Piacditelli, G.M and Amandus, H.E (1990) Respirable dust exposures in US surface coal mines (1982-1986). Arch. Environ Health. 45 (4): 202-209.
  29. Amandus, H.E and Peterson, M.R (1989) Dust exposures at US surface coal mines in 1982 - 1983. Arch Environ Health 42(6):374-81.
  30. Peterson, P.E and Henmar, P. (1988). Oral conditions among workers in the Danish granite industry. Scan J. Work Environ Health. 14 (5): 328-331.
  31. Shaw G. (2005). Applying radioecology in a world of multiple contaminants. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 81 (2005) 117e130
  32. Ayodele, J.T. and Abubakkar, M.B. (2001); Trace metal levels in Tiga lake, Kano, Nigeria. Trop. Environ. Res. 3: 230 - 237.
  33. Galadima, A. and Garba, Z.N. (2012). Heavy metals pollution in Nigeria: causes and consequences. Elixir Pollution 45 (2012) 7917-7922
  34. Needleman H. (2004). Lead poisoning. Annu Rev Med 55(1):209-222.
  35. Canfield R.L., Henderson Jr. C.R., Cory-Slechta D.A., Cox C., Jusko T.A., Lanphear B.P.( 2003). Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 ?g per deciliter. N Engl J Med 348(16):1517-1526.
  36. Jusko T.A., Henderson C.R. Jr., Lanphear BP, Cory-Slechta DA, Parsons PJ. Canfield RL. (2008). Blood lead concentrations <10 ug/dL and child intelligence at 6 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 116:243-248.
  37. Orisakwe, O.E (2009) Environmental pollution and blood lead levels in Nigeria: Who is un-exposed. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 15,3 315-317.
  38. Falk H. (2003). International environmental health for the pediatrician: case study of lead poisoning. Pediatrics 112(1):259-264.
  39. Meyer PA, Brown MJ, Falk, H. (2008). Global approach to reducing lead exposure and poisoning. Mutat Res 659(1-2):166-175.
  40. Fatoki OS, Mathabata S (2001) An assessment of heavy metals pollution in the East London and Port Elizabeth harbours. Water SA 27: 233-240.
  41. Fukue M, Nakamura T Kato Y, Yamasaki S (1999) Degree of pollution for marine Sediments. Engineering Geology 53: 131-137.
  42. Fan W, Wang WX, Chen J (2002) Geochemistry of Cd, Cr, and Zn in highly contaminated sediments and its influences on assimilation by marine bivalves. Environ Sci Technol 36: 5164-5171.
  43. Sheppard, M.I., Stephenson, M., 1997. Critical Evaluation of Selective Extraction Methods for Soils and Sediments, Contaminated Soils. INRA (Les Colleagues, 85), Paris.
  44. Coetzee PP (1993) Determination and speciation of heavy metals in sediments of the Hartebeespoort Dam By sequential extraction. Water SA 19: 291-300.
  45. Salmons W, Forsstner U (1980) Trace metal analysis on polluted sediments. Part II:evaluation of Environmental impact. Environ Technical letter 1: 14-24.
  46. Li X, Thornton I (2000) Chemical partitioning of trace and major elements in soils contaminated by mining and smelting activities. Applied geochemistry 16: 1693-1706.
  47. Kiratli N, Ergin M (1996) Partitioning of heavy metals in surface Black Sea sediments. Applied Geochemistry 11: 775-788.
  48. Kersten M, Frostner U (1986) Chemical fractionation of heavy metals in anoxic estuarine and coastal sediments. Water. Sci. Technol 18: 121-130.
  49. Borovec Z, Tolar V, Mraz L (1993) Distribution of some metals in sediments of the central part of the Labe (Eibe) River: Czeech Republic. Ambio 22: 200-205.
  50. Gomez-Ariza JL, Giraldez I, Sanchez- Rodas DE, Morales E (2000) Metal sequential Extraction Procedure optimized for heavy metal polluted and ironoxide rich sediments. Anal Chim Acta 414: 151-164.
  51. Wang S, Jia Y, Wang S, Wang X, Wang H, et al. (2010) Fractionation of heavy metals in shallow marine sediments from Jinzhou Bay, China. J Environ Sci (China) 22: 23-31.
  52. Press, W.H., Tukolsky, S.A., Vetterling, W.T., Flannery, B.P., 1992. Numerical recipes in Fortran. The Art of Scientific Computing, second ed. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  53. Frodesen, A.G., Skjeggestad, O., Tofte, H., 1979. Probability and statistics in particle physics. Universitetsforlaget, Bergen.
Publication Details
  Published in : Volume 1 | Issue 2 | May-June 2015
  Date of Publication : 2015-07-05
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 105-109
Manuscript Number : IJSRST151225
Publisher : Technoscience Academy
PRINT ISSN : 2395-6011
ONLINE ISSN : 2395-602X
Cite This Article :
Y. M. Ahijjo, A.N. Baba-Kutigi, M. Momoh, A. U. Moreh, "A Review of Sequential Extraction Method for Lead in Samples: A Case Study of Artisanal Mines of Sokoto Basin (Zamfara State)", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology(IJSRST), Print ISSN : 2395-6011, Online ISSN : 2395-602X, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp.105-109, May-June-2015.
Journal URL : http://ijsrst.com/IJSRST151225