Home > Archives > IJSRST151431 IJSRST-Library

Environmental and Public Health Risks Associated with Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) Spread in Environment: A Comprehensive Review

Authors(2) :-Ohidul Alam, Tianlin Deng

Currently, the use of life saving antibiotics is growing up rapidly due to its multi-effectiveness for curing from bacterial infected diseases. If same antibiotics are frequently consumed, then it kills - susceptible bacteria but leaves resistance gene. Thus, some bacteria obtain resistance capacity against some antibiotics called antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARBs). Consequently, uncontrolled production and unmonitored consumption of antibiotics is responsible for – antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) spread in environment. Hence, it is considered as emerging contaminants posing a potential worldwide human health risk, but mass people aren’t concerned about it hereto. Therefore, we conducted this review to explore the already performed researches on this topic and their gaps. It revealed that researchers have already detected – wastewater, surface water, wastewater treatment plant, sludge, landfill leachate, soil, animal washed lagoon, and animal farm as reservoir of ARGs. China is the largest producer and consumers of antibiotics, followed by U.S. in the world wherein (46.1%) are used in livestock’s industries. Consequently, intensive animal husbandry is declared as-hotspot of ARGs. But, little knowledge is known about the associated risks with ARGs. However, 149 unique ARGs are detected from swine farm in China by researchers. Still, there is no universal technology to remove or kill ARGs from such sources but – advanced technologies are performing better.

Ohidul Alam, Tianlin Deng
Antibiotics; Resistance; ARBs; ARGs; Environment; Health; Contamination.
  1. Adams, C., Wang, Y., Loftin, K., Meyer, M. 2002. Removal of Antibiotics from Surface and Distilled Water in Conventional Water Treatment Processes. J. EnViron. Eng.-ASCE, 128: p. 253- 260.
  2. Adeyemo, O. 2002. Unhygienic Operation of a City Abattoir in South Western Nigeria: Environmental Implication. African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4(1): p. 23–28.
  3. Animal Health Institute (AHI), 2009. Survey Shows Decline in Antibiotic Use in Animals. Available at http://www.ahi.org/content.asp?contentid)694.
  4. American Academy of Microbiology (AAM), 2005. Vaccine Development: Current Status and Future Needs. Based on a Colloquium Held in Washington, DC, 4       to 6 March 2005. ASM Press, Washington, DC. 
  5. Aminov, R. I., Mackie, R. I. 2007. Evolution and Ecology of Antibiotic Resistance Genes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 271: p. 147–161.
  6. Arias, C.A., Murray, B.E. 2009. Antibiotic-resistant Bugs in the 21st Century – A Clinical Super-challenge. N Engl J Med 360(5): p. 439–443. 
  7. Auerbach, E. A., Seyfried, E. E., McMahon, K. D. 2007. Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants. Water Res., 41 (5): p. 1143–1151.
  8. Benveniste, R., Davies, J. 1973. Aminoglycoside Antibiotic-inactivating Enzymes in Actinomycetes Similar to Those Present in Clinical Isolates of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70: p. 2276–2280.
  9. Biyela, P.T., Lin, J., Bezuidenhout, C.C., 2004. The Role of Aquatic Ecosstems as Reservoirs of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes. Water Science and Technology 50 (1): p. 45-50.
  10. Boeckel, T.P.V., Gandra, S., Ashok, A., Caudron, Q., Grenfell, B.T., Levin, S.A., Laxminarayan, R. 2014. Global Antibiotic Consumption 2000 to 2010: An Analysis of National Pharmaceutical Sales Data.
  11. Boyle-Vavra, S., Daum, R.S., Daum, R.S. 2007. "Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: The Role of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin". Lab. Invest. 87 (1): p. 3–9.
  12. Breazeal, M.V.R., Novak, J.T., Vikesland, P.J., Pruden, A. 2013. Effect of Wastewater Colloids on Membrane Removal of Antibiotic Resistance Genes. Water Research 47: p. 130 -140.
  13. Byrne-Bailey, K.G., Gaze, W.H., Kay, P., Boxall, A.B.A., Hawkey, P.M., Wellington, E.M.H. 2009. Prevalence of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Bacterial Isolates from Manured Agricultural Soils and Pig Slurry in the United Kingdom. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 53 (2): p. 696–702.
  14. Cai, P., Huang, Q.Y., Zhang, X.W. 2006. Interactions of DNA with Clay Minerals and Soil Colloidal Particles and Protection against Degradation by DNase. Environmental Science & Technology 40 (9): p. 2971-2976.
  15. Canton, R. 2009. Antibiotic Resistance Genes from the Environment: A Perspective through Newly Identified Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms in the Clinical Setting. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 15(Suppl. 1): p. 20–25.
  16. Gallego-Castro, L.A., Mahecha-Ledesma, L., Angulo-Arizala, J. 2014. Potential of Tithonia Diversifolia Hemsl. A Gray as Forage for the Production of Dairy Cows. Agron. Mesoam., 25 (2): p. 393-403. 
  17. Chan, C.X., Beiko, R.G., Ragan, M.A., Beiko, R.G., Ragan, M.A. 2011. "Lateral Transfer of Genes and Gene Fragments in Staphylococcus Extends beyond Mobile Elements". J Bacteriol 193 (15): p. 3964–3977.
  18. Chang, Q., Wang, W., Regev-Yochay, G., Lipsitch, M., Hanage, W.P. 2014. Antibiotics in Agriculture and the Risk to Human Health: How Worried Should We Be? Evolutionary Applications ISSN 1752-4571. 
  19. Chee-Sanford, J., Mackie, R.I., Koike, S., Krapac, I.G., Lin, Y-F., Yannarell, A.C., Maxwell, S., Aminov, R.I. 2009. Fate and Transport of Antibiotic Residues and Antibiotic Resistance Genes Following Land Application of Manure Waste.
  20. Chassy, B.M. 2008. Will Agricultural Biotechnology Lead to the Spread of Antibiotic Resistance?
  21. Chen, J., Yu, Z., Michel, F.C., Wittum, T., Morrison, M. 2007. Development and Application of Real-time PCR Assays for Quantification of ERM Genes Conferring Resistance to Macrolideslincosamides-streptogramin B in Livestock Manure and Manure MAnagement Systems. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 73 (14): p. 4407−4416.
  22. Chen, H., Zhang, M. 2013. Occurrence and Removal of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Municipal Wastewater and Rural Domestic Sewage Treatment Systems in Eastern China. Environ. Int., 55: p. 9−14.
  23. Col, N.F., O’Connor, R.W. 1987.  Estimating Worldwide Current Antibiotic Usage: Report of Task Force 1. Rev Infect Dis, 9 (suppl 3): p. 232–243.
  24. Criswell, D. 2004.  The "Evolution" of Antibiotic Resistance. “Vital Articles on Science/Creation, Available at http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.icr.org/article/evolution-antibiotic-resistance/
  25. Czekalski, N., Dı´ez, E.G., Bu¨rgmann, H. 2014. Wastewater as a Point Source of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Sediment of a Freshwater Lake. The ISME Journal (2014) 8: p. 1381–1390. 
  26. Dang, H.Y., Ren, J., Song, L.S., Sun, S., An, L. 2008. Dominant Chloramphenicol-resistant Bacteria and Resistance Genes in Coastal Marine Waters of Jiaozhou Bay, China. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 24 (2): p. 209–217.
  27. Davies, J. 2008. Antibiotic Resistance and the Future of Antibiotics. Forum on Microbial Threats.
  28. Davies, J., Davies, D. 2010. Origins and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 74 (3): p. 417–433
  29. de Lemos, J.L., Bostick, B.C., Renshaw, C.E., St, U.S., Feng, X. 2006. Landfill-stimulated Iron Reduction and Arsenic Release at the Coakley Superfund Site (NH). Environ Sci Technol 40: p. 67–73.  
  30. Dodd, M.C. 2012. Potential Impacts of Disinfection Processes on Elimination and Deactivation of Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Water and Wastewater Treatment. J Environ Monit 14: p. 1754–1771.
  31. Doern, G.V. et al., 2001. Antimicrobial Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States during 1999–2000, Including a Comparison of Resistance Rates since 1994–1995. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 45(6): p. 1721–1729. 
  32. Edelstein, M.V., Skleenova, E.N., Shevchenko, O.V., et al. 2013. Spread of Extensively Resistant VIM-2-positive ST235 Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia: A Longitudinal Epidemiological and Clinical Study. Lancet Infect Dis, 13: p. 867–876. 
  33. Eggen, T., Moeder, M., Arukwe, A. 2010. Municipal Landfill Leachates: A Significant Source for New and Emerging Pollutants. Sci Total Environ 408: p. 5147–5157.
  34. Factsheet for Experts, 2014. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved December 21, 2014
  35. Fahad, B.M., Matin, A., Shill, M.C., Asish, K.D. 2010. Antibiotic Usage at a Primary Health Care Unit in Bangladesh. Australas Med J, 3: p. 414–21.
  36. Fahrenfeld, N., Knowlton, K., Krometis, L.A., Hession, W.C., Xia,K., Lipscom, E., Libuit, K., Green, B.L., Pruden, A. 2014. Effect of Manure Application on Abundance of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Their Attenuation Rates in Soil: Field-Scale Mass Balance Approach. Environ. Sci. Technol., 48: p. 2643−2650. 
  37. Ferech, M., Coenen, S., Malhotra-Kumar, S., et al. 2006. European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC): Outpatient Antibiotic Use in Europe. J Antimicrob Chemother, 58: p. 401–407.
  38. Ghosh, S., LaPara, T.M. 2007. The effects of Subtherapeutic Antibiotic Use in Farm Animals on the Proliferation and Persistence of Antibiotic Resistance among Soil Bacteria. ISME J., 1 (3): p. 191−203.
  39. Ghosh, S., Ramsden, S.J., LaPara, T.M. 2009. The Role of Anaerobic Digestion in controlling the Release of Tetracycline Resistance Genes and Class 1 Integrons from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 84 (4): p. 791−796.
  40. Gillespie, D.E., Brady, S.F., Bettermann, A.D., Cianciotto, N.P., Liles, M.R., Rondon, M.R., et al. 2002. Isolation of
  41. Antibiotics Turbomycin A and B from a Metagenomic Library of Soil Microbial DNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 68: p. 4301–4306.
  42. Goossens, H., Ferech, M., Vander Stichele, R., Elseviers M for the ESAC Project Group. 2005. Outpatient Antibiotic Use in Europe and Association with Resistance: A Cross-national Database Study. Lancet, 365: p. 579–587.
  43. Goossens, H., Ferech, M., Coenen, S., Stephens, P. 2007. Comparison of Outpatient Systemic Antibacterial Use in 2004 in the United States and 27 European Countries. Clin Infect Dis, 44: p. 1091–1095.
  44. Graham, D.W., Olivares-Rieumont, S., Knapp, C.W., Lima, L., Werner, D., Bowen, E. 2011. Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundances Associated with Waste Discharges to the Almendares River Near Havana, Cuba. Environ. Sci. Technol., 45 (2): p. 418−424.
  45. Grundmann, H., Aires-de-Sousa, M., Boyce, J., Tiemersma, E. 2006. Emergence and Resurgence of Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a Public-health Threat. Lancet, 368: p. 874–885.
  46. Graves, A.K.C., Hagedorn, A., Teetor, M., Mahal, A.M., Booth, R.B., Reneau, J.R. 2002. Antibiotic Resistance Profiles to Determine Sources of Fecal Contamination in a Rural Virginia Watershed. J. Environ. Qual. 31: p. 1300-1308.
  47. Head, I.M., Saunders, J.R., Pickup, R.W. 199. Microbial Evolution, Diversity, and Ecology: A Decade of Ribosomal
  48. RNA Analysis of Uncultivated Microorganisms. Microb Ecol 35: p. 1–21.
  49. Heuer, H., Smalla, K. 2007. Manure and Sulfadiazine Synergistically Increased Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance in Soil Over at Least Two Months. Environ Microbiol 9: p. 657–666.
  50. Heuer, H., Binh, C.T.T., Kopmann, C., Zimmerling, U., Krögerrecklenfort, E., Smalla, K. 2010. Effects of Veterinary Medicines Introduced via Manure into Soil on Microbial Communities. Interdisciplinary Studies on Environmental Chemistry — Biological Responses to Contaminants, Eds., N. Hamamura, S. Suzuki, S. Mendo, C. M. Barroso, H. Iwata and S. Tanabe, p. 9–13. 
  51. Heuer, H., Solehati, Q., Zimmerling, U., Kleineidam, K., Schloter, M., Müller, T., Focks, A., Thiele-Bruhn, S., Smalla, K. 2011. Accumulation of Sulphonamide Resistance Genes in Arable Soils due to REpeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 77 (7): p. 2527−2530.
  52. Higgins, P.G., Dammhayn, C., Hackel, M., Seifert, H. 2010. Global Spread of Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. J Antimicrob Chemother, 65: p. 233–238.
  53. Hijnen, W.A.M., Beerendonk, E.F., Medema, G.J. 2006. Inactivation Credit of UV Radiation for Viruses, Bacteria and Protozoan (oo)cysts in Water: A Review. Water Res., 40 (1): p. 3−22.
  54. Holm, J.V., Ruegge, K., Bjerg, P.L., Christensen, T.H. 1995. Occurrence and Distribution of Pharmaceutical Organic Compounds in the Groundwater Downgradient of a Landfill (Grindsted, Denmark). Environ Sci Technol 29: p. 1415–1420.
  55. Jechalke, S., Focks, A., Rosendahl, I., Groeneweg, J., Siemens, J., Heuer, H., Smalla, K. 2014. Structural and Functional Response of the Soil Bacterial Community to Application of Manure from Difloxacin-treated Pigs. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 87: p. 78−88.
  56. Joy, S.R., Bartelt-Hunt, S., Snow, D., Gilley, J.E., Woodbury, B., Parker, D., Marx, D.B., Li, X. 2013. Fate and Transport of Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Soil and Runoff following Land Application of Swine Manure Slurry. Environ. Sci. Technol., 47: p. 12081−12088.
  57. Jury, K.L., Vancov, T., Stuetz, R.M., Khan, S.J. 2010. Antibiotic Resistance Dissemination and Sewage Treatment Plants. Current Research, Technology and Education Topics in Applied Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology.
  58. Khachatourians, G.G. 1998. Agricultural Use of Antibiotics and the Evolution and Transfer of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria. Canadian Medical Association, 159 (9)
  59. Kim, S., Aga, D.S. 2007. Potential Ecological and Human Health Impacts of Antibiotics and Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria from Wastewater Treatment Plants. J Toxicol Environ Health Part B Crit Rev 10: p. 559–573.
  60. Kim, S-C., Carlson, K. 2007. Quantification of Human and Veterinary Antibiotics in Water and Sediment Using SPE/LC/MS/MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 387: p. 1301–1315.
  61. Kim, J.R., Jung, S.H., Regan, J.M., Logan, B.E. 2007. Electricity Generation and Microbial Community Analysis of Alcohol Powered Microbial Fuel Cells. Bioresource Technology 98: p. 2568–2577.
  62. Kim, S., Park, H., Chandran, K., 2010. Propensity of Activated Sludge to Amplify or Attenuate Tetracycline Resistance Genes and Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria: A Mathematical Modelling Approach. Chemosphere 78 (9): p. 1071-1077.
  63. Knapp, C.W., Dolfing, J., Ehlert, P.A.I., Graham, D.W. 2010. Evidence of Increasing Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundances in Archived Soils since 1940. Environ. Sci. Technol., 44 (2): p. 580–587.
  64. Knapp, C.W., McCluskey, S.M., Singh, B.K., Campbell, C.D., Hudson, G., Graham, D.W. 2011. Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundances Correlate with Metal and Geochemical Conditions in Archived Scottish Soils. PLoS One 6: e27300.
  65. Knietsch, A., Waschkowitz, T., Bowien, S., Henne, A., Daniel, R. 2003. Metagenomes of Complex Microbial Consortia Derived from Different Soils as Sources for Novel Genes Conferring Formation of Carbonyls from Short-chain Polyols on Escherichia coli. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 5: p. 46–56.
  66. LaPara, T.M., Burch, T.R., McNamara, P.J., Tan, D.T., Yan, M., Eichmiller, J.J. 2011. Tertiary-treated Municipal Wastewater is a Significant Point Source of Antibiotic resistance Genes into Duluth-Superior Harbor. Environ Sci Technol 45: p. 9543–9549.
  67. Laxminarayan, R., Duse, A., Wattal, C., et al. 2013. Antibiotic Resistance the Need for Global Solutions. Lancet Infect Dis, 13: p. 1057–1098.
  68. Levy, S.B., Marshall, B. 2004. Antibacterial Resistance Worldwide: Causes, Challenges and Responses. Nat Med 10: S122–S129. 
  69. Levy, S.B. 1997. Antibiotic Resistance: An Ecological Imbalance. Ciba Foundation Symposium 207:1-9, Discussion 9-14.
  70. Liu, B., Pop, M. 2009. ARDB – Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 37: D443–D447.
  71. Llano-Sotelo, B. et al., 2002. Aminoglycosides Modified by Resistance Enzymes Display Diminished Binding to the Bacterial Ribosomal Aminoacyl-tRNA Site. Chemistry and Biology 9: p. 455–463.
  72. Loftin, K.A., Meyer, M.T., Kolpin, D.W. 2007. Assessment of Antibiotic Residues in Extracted Biosolids, Manure, Soils, and Streambed Sediment in the United States: A Source Reconnaissance. 6th International Conference on Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Water, National Ground Water Association, October, 22, 2007.
  73. Luczkiewicz, A., Jankowska, K., Fudala-Ksiazek, S., Olanczuk-Neyman, K. Antimicrobial Resistance of Fecal Indicators in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Water Res., 44 (17): p. 5089−5097.
  74. Luo, Y., Mao, D., Rysz, M., Zhou, Q., Zhang, H., Xu, L., Alvarez, P.J.J. 2010. Trends in Antibiotic Resistance Genes Occurrence in the Haihe River, China. Environ. Sci. Technol., 44: p. 7220–7225. 
  75. Ma, Y., Wilson, C.A., Novak, J.T.,  Riffat, R., Aynur, S., Murthy, S., Pruden, A. 2011. Effect of Various Sludge Digestion Conditions on Sulfonamide, Macrolide, and Tetracycline Resistance Genes and Class I Integrons. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45: p. 7855–7861.
  76. MacLeod, R.S., Savin, M.C. 2014. Presence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Northwest Arkansas.
  77. Mathew, A.G., Cissell, R., Liamthong, S., Cissell, R., Liamthong, S. 2007. Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria Associated with Food Animals: A United States Perspective of Livestock Production. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 4 (2): p. 115–133. 
  78. Martinez, J.L. 2008. Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Natural Environments. Science 321: p. 365–367.
  79.  Mckinney, C.W., Loftin, K.A., Meyer, M.T., Davis, J.G., Pruden, A. 2010. tet and sul Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Livestock  Lagoons of Various Operation Type, Configuration, and Antibiotic Occurrence. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44: p. 6102–6109. 
  80. McKinney, C.W., Pruden, A. 2012. Ultraviolet Disinfection of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Their Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Water and Wastewater. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46: p.13393−13400. 
  81. Megraud, F., Coenen, S., Versporten, A., et al. 2013. Helicobacter Pylori Resistance to Antibiotics in Europe and Its Relationship to Antibiotic Consumption. Gut, 62: p. 34–42.
  82. Moran, G.J., Krishnadasan, A., Gorwitz, R.J., et al. 2006. Methicillin Resistant S. aureus Infections among Patients in the Emergency Department. N Engl J Med, 355: p. 666–674.
  83. Munir, M., Wong, K., Xagoraraki, I. 2010. Release of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Genes in the Effluent and Biosolids of Five Wastewater Utilities in Michigan. Water Res., 45 (2): p. 681−693.
  84. Munir, M., Wong, K., Xagoraraki, I. 2011. Release of Antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes in the effluent and biosolids of five wastewater utilities in Michigan. Water Res. 2011, 45,
  85. Murray, G.E., Tobin, R.S., Junkins, B., Kushner, D.J., 1984. Effect of Chlorination on Antibiotic-resistance Profiles of Sewage Related Bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 48 (1): p. 73-77.
  86. Nagulapally, S.R., Ahmad, A., Henry, A., Marchin, G.L., Zurek, L., Bhandari, A. 2009. Occurrence of Ciprofloxacin-, trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole-, and Vancomycin-resistant Bacteria in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Water Environ. Res., 81 (1): p. 82−90.
  87. Nesme, J., Simonet, P. 2015. The Soil Resistome: A Critical Review on Antibiotic Resistance Origins, Ecology and Dissemination Potential in Telluric Bacteria. Environmental Microbiology, 17(4): p. 913–930. 
  88. Nõlvak, H., Truu, M., Kanger, K., Tiirik, K., Tampere, M., Loit, E., Raave, E., Truu, J. 2015. Impact of Fertilizer Type on the Abundance and Proportion of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Grassland Soil. 
  89. Nordmann, P., Naas, T., and Poirel, L. 2011. Global Spread of Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Emerg Infect Dis 17: p. 1791–1798.
  90. Nwosu, V.C. 2001. Antibiotic Resistance with Particular Reference to Soil Microorganisms. Res Microbiol 152: p. 421–430.
  91. Okeke, I.N., Klugman, K.P., Bhutta, Z.A., et al. 2005. Antimicrobial Resistance in Developing Countries. Part II: Strategies for Containment. Lancet Infect Dis, 5: p. 568–80.
  92. Pallecchi, L., Lucchetti, C., Bartoloni, A., Bartalesi, F., Mantella, A., Gamboa, H., Carattoli, A., Paradisi, F., Rossolini, G.M. 2007. Population Structure and Resistance Genes in Antibiotic-resistant bacteria from a Remote Community with Minimal Antibiotic Exposure. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51: p. 1179–1184.
  93. Pan, X., Qiang, Z., Ben, W., Chen, M. 2011. Residual Veterinary Antibiotics in Swine Manure from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations in Shandong Province, China. Chemosphere 84(5): p. 695–700.
  94. Pei, R., Kim, S., Carlson, K.H., Pruden, A. 2006. Effect of River Landscape on the Sediment Concentrations of Antibiotics and Corresponding Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARG). Water research 40 (2006): p. 2427 – 2435. 
  95. Pei, R., Cha, J., Carlson, K.H., Pruden, A. 2007. Response of Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARG) to Biological Treatment in Dairy Lagoon Water. Environ. Sci. Technol., 41: p. 5108-5113.
  96. Peng, X., Ou, W., Wang, C., Wang, Z., Huang, Q., Jin, J., Tan, J. 2014. Occurrence and Ecological Potential of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Groundwater and Reservoirs in the Vicinity of Municipal Landfills in China. Sci. Total Environ., 490, 889−898 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.068. 
  97. Phillips, I., Casewell, M., Cox, T., De Groot, B., Friis, C., Jones, R., Nightingale, C., Preston, R., Waddell, J. 2004. Does the Use of Antibiotics in Food Animals Pose a Risk to Human Health? A Critical Review of Published Data. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 53: p. 28-52, http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/53/1/28.full.pdf+html
  98. Poté, J., Ceccherini, M.T., Van, V.T., Rosselli, W., Wildi, W., Simonet, P., Vogel, T.M. 2003. Fate and Transport of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Saturated Soil Columns. European Journal of Soil Biology, 39: p. 65–71.
  99. Price, L. B., Stegger, M., Hasman, H., Aziz, M., Larsenb, J., Andersen, P. S., et al. 2012. Staphylococcus aureus CC398: Host Adaptation and Emergence of Methicillin Resistance in Livestock. mBio., 3, e00305−11.
  100. Price, L.B., Kochc, B.J., Hungate, B.A. 2015. Ominous Projections for Global Antibiotic Use in Food-animal Production. PNAS, 112 (18)
  101. Pruden, A.,  Arabi, M., Storteboom, H.N. 2012. Correlation between Upstream Human Activities and Riverine Antibiotic Resistance Genes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46: p. 11541−11549. 
  102. Pruden, A. 2013. Balancing Water Sustainability and Public Health Goals in the Face of Growing Concerns about Antibiotic Resistance. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2014, 48: p. 5-14. 
  103. Pruden, A. 2014. Balancing Water Sustainability and Public Health Goals in the Face of Growing Concerns about Antibiotic Resistance. Environ. Sci. Technol., 48: p. 5−14.
  104. Qiang, Z., Macauley, J.J., Mormile, M.R., Surampalli, R., Adams, C.D. 2006. Treatment of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Swine Wastewater with Free Chlorine. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006, 54: p. 8144-8154. 
  105. Ramakrishnan, A., Blaney, L. 2015. Emerging Contaminants in Landfill Leachate and Their Sustainable Management. Environ Earth Sci, 73: p.1357–1368. 
  106. Riesenfeld, C.S., Goodman, R.M., Handelsman, J. 2004. Uncultured Soil Bacteria Are a Reservoir of New Antibiotic Resistance Genes. Environmental Microbiology, 6(9): p. 981–989.
  107. Rizzo, L., Manaia, C., Merlin, C., Schwartz, T., Dagot, C., Ploy, M.C. et al. 2013. Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants as Hotspots for antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Genes Spread into the Environment: A Review. Sci Total Environ 447: p. 345–360.
  108. Robicsek, A., Jacoby, G.A., Hooper, D.C., Jacoby, G.A., Hooper, D.C. 2006. The Worldwide Emergence of Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance. Lancet Infect Dis 6 (10): p. 629–640.
  109. Sarmah, A.K., Meyer, M.T., Boxall, A.B.A. 2006. A Global Perspective on the Use, Sales, Exposure Pathways, Occurrence, Fate and Effects of Veterinary Antibiotics (Vas) in the Environment. Chemosphere 65: p. 725–759.
  110. Segawa, T., Takeuchi, N., Rivera, A., Yamada, A., Yoshimura, Y., Barcaza, G., Shinbori, K., Motoyama, H., Kohshima, S., Ushida, K. 2013. Distribution of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Glacier Environments. Environmental Microbiology Reports, 5(1): p. 127–134.
  111. Selvam, A., Xu, D., Zhao, Z., Wong, J.W.C. 2012. Fate of Tetracycline, Sulfonamide and Fluoroquinolone Resistance Genes and the Changes in Bacterial Diversity during Composting of Swine Manure. Bioresour. Technol., 126: p. 383−390. 
  112. Sengelov, G., Agerso, Y., Halling-Sørenson, B., Baloda, S.B., Anderson, J.S., Jensen, L.B. 2003. Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Levels in Danish Farmland as a Result of Treatment with Pig Manure Slurry. Environ. Int. 28: p. 587–595. 
  113. Shi, J., et al. 2011. Potential Risks of Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Pollution Due to Pig Manure Application in a Soil-rice System Under Intensive Farming: A Case Study of Nanhu, China. J Environ Qual 40(6): p. 1695–1704.
  114. Shoemaker, N.B., Vlamakis, H., Hayes, K., Salyers, A.A. 2001. Evidence for Extensive Resistance Gene Transfer Among Bacteroides spp. And Among Bacteroides and Other Genera in the Human Colon. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: p. 561–568.
  115. Shorr, A.F. 2007. Epidemiology of Staphylococcal Resistance. Clin Infect Dis, 45: S171–176.
  116. Shrivastava, R., Upreti, R.K., Jain, S.R., Prasad, K.N., Seth, P.K., Chaturvedi, U.C., 2004. Suboptimal Chlorine Treatment of Drinking Water Leads to Selection of Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 58 (2): p. 277-283.
  117. Smalla, K., Heuer, H., Götz, A., Niemeyer, D., Krögerrecklenfort, E., Tietze, E. 2000. Exogenous Isolation of Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids from Piggery Manure Slurries Reveals a High Prevalence and Diversity of IncQ-like Plasmids. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 66: p. 4854–4864.
  118. Sommer, M.O.A., Church, G.M., Dantas, G. 2010. The Human Microbiome Harbors a Diverse Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistance Genes. Virulence 1(4): p. 299-303.
  119. Stockwell, V.O., Duffy, B. 2012. Use of Antibiotics in Plant Agriculture. Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 31 (1): p. 199-210.
  120. Storteboom, H., Arabi, M., Davis, J.G., Crimi, B., Pruden, A. 2010. Tracking Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the South Platte River Basin Using Molecular Signatures of Urban, Agricultural, and Pristine Sources. Environ. Sci. Technol., 44: p. 7397–7404.
  121. Svanström, P. 2014. Pathogens and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Abattoir Waste and Animals – A Study Involving Abattoir Wastewater, Earthworms and Marabou Storks.  Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
  122. Szczepanowski, R., Linke, B., Krahn, I., Gartemann, K. H., Gutzkow, T., Eichler, W., Puhler, A., Schluter, A. 2009. Detection of 140 Clinically Relevant Antibiotic-resistance Genes in the Plasmid Metagenome of Wastewater Treatment Plant Bacteria Showing Reduced Susceptibility to Selected Antibiotics. Microbiology (Reading, U.K.), 155: p. 2306−2319.
  123. Tanaka, Y., Omura, S.1990. Metabolism and Products of Actinomycetes: An Introduction. Actinomycetologica 4: p. 13–14.
  124. Threedeach, S., Chiemchaisri, W., Watanabe, T., Chiemchaisri, C., Honda, R., Yamamoto, K. 2012. Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli in Leachates from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills: Comparison between Semi-aerobic and Anaerobic Operations. Bioresour. Technol., 113: p. 253−258 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.086 
  125. Top, Ed., Leung, K., Ball-Coelho, B., Lazarovits, G. 2000. Identification, Environmental Fate, and Mitigation of Biological and Chemical Contaminants Including Antibiotics, Hormones, Enteric Bacteria, and Genes Encoding Bacterial Pathogenicity and Antibiotic Resistance.  
  126. Udwadia, Z.F., Amale, R.A., Ajbani, K.K., Rodrigues, C. 2012. Totally Drug-resistant Tuberculosis in India. Clin Infect Dis 54(4): p. 579–581.
  127. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2012. Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual For The Final Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. Available at http://www.epa.gov/ ogwdw/disinfection/lt2/pdfs/guide_lt2_uvguidance.pdf  
  128. Van-Boeckel, T.P., et al. 2015. Global Trends in Antimicrobial Use in Food Animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112: p. 5649–5654.
  129. Varga, C., et al. 2009. Associations between Reported On-farm Antimicrobial Use Practices and Observed Antimicrobial Resistance in Generic Fecal Escherichia coli Isolated from Alberta Finishing Swine Farms. Prev Vet Med 88(3): p. 185–192.
  130. Waksman, S.A. 1973. History of the Word ‘Antibiotic.’ J. Hist. Med. Allied Sci. 28: p. 284–286.
  131. Wang, F.H., et al. 2006. The Estimation of the Production and Amount of Animal Manure and Its Environmental Effect in China. China Environ Sci 26: p. 614–617. 
  132. Wang, Y., Jia, D., Sun, R., Zhu, H., Zhou, D. Adsorption and cosorption of tetracycline and copper(II) on montmorillonite as affected by solution pH. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 3254−3259 DOI: 10.1021/es702641a. 
  133. Watkinson, A.J., Murby, E.J., Kolpin, D.W., Costanzo, S.D., 2009. The Occurrence of Antibiotics in an Urban Watershed: From Wastewater to Drinking Water. Science of the Total Environment 407: p. 2711-2723.
  134. West, P.C., Gibbs, H.K., Monfreda, C., Wagner, J., Barford, C.C., Carpenter, S.R., Foley, J.A. 2010. Trading Carbon for Food: Global Comparison of Carbon Stocks Vs. Crop Yields on Agricultural Land. PNAS, vol. 107 (46): p. 19645–19648. 
  135. World Health Organization (WHO), 2013. Antimicrobial Resistance Factsheet. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/en/
  136. WHO, 2014. Antimicrobial Resistance: Global Report on Surveillance 2014. WHO. WHO. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
  137. Whyte, P., Fanning, S., O’Brien, S., O’Grady, L., Solomon, K. 2011. Tracing Pathogens in Red Meat and Game Production Chains and at the Abattoir. In: Brul S. Fratamico, P. M. McMeekin, T. A. (ed). (2011). Tracing Pathogens in the Food Chain. Woodhead Publishing. p. 398-399. Available at: http://app.knovel.com/hotlink/toc/id:kpTPFC000J/tracing-pathogens-in
  138. Wright, G.D., 1999. Aminoglycoside-modifying Enzymes. Current Opinion in Microbiology 2: p. 499–503.
  139. Wu, N., Qiao, M., Zhang, B., Cheng, W.-D., Zhu, Y.-G. 2010. Abundance and Diversity of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Soils Adjacent to Representative Swine Feedlots in China. Environ. Sci. Technol., 44 (18): p. 6933−6939.
  140. Wu, D., Huang, Z., Yang, K., Graham, D., Xie, B. 2015. Relationships between Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Gene Levels in Municipal Solid Waste Leachates in Shanghai, China. Environ. Sci. Technol. XXXX, XXX, XXX−XXX
  141. Xu, W., Zhang, G., Li, X., Zou, S., Li, P., Hu, Z., Li, J. 2007. Occurrence and Elimination of Antibiotics at Four Sewage Treatment Plants in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. Water Res., 41: p. 4164−4176.
  142. Yang, S., Carlson, K.H., 2004. Routine Monitoring of Antibiotics in Water and Wastewater with a Radioimmunoassy Technique. Water Res. 38: p. 3155–3166.
  143. Yang, H., Byelashov, O.A., Geornaras, I., Goodridge, L.D., Nightingale, K.K., Belk, K.E., Smith, G.C., Sofos, J.N. 2010. Presence of Antibiotic-resistant Commensal Bacteria in Samples from Agricultural, City, and National Park Environments Evaluated by Standard Culture and REal-time PCR Methods. Can. J. Microbiol., 56 (9): p. 761−770.
  144. Yang, J.F., Ying, G.G., Zhao, J.L., Tao, R., Su, H.C., Liu, Y.S. 2011. Spatial and Seasonal Distribution of Selected Antibiotics in Surface Waters of the Pearl Rivers, China. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part B, 46 (3): p. 272−280 DOI: 10.1080/03601234.2011.540540.
  145. Yan, C., Yang, Y., Zhou, J., Liu, M., Nie, M, Shi, H., Gu, L. 2013. Antibiotics in the Surface Water of the Yangtze Estuary: Occurrence, Distribution and Risk Assessment. Environmental Pollution 175: p. 22-29.
  146. Yannarell, A.C. 2008. Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Residues in Water and Soils in Close PRoximity to Swine Production Facilities. Award 2005-35102-16426 Roderick I. Mackie University of Illinois at Urbabna-Champaign.
  147. Zhang, Y., Marrs, C., Simon, C., Xi, C. 2009. Wastewater Treatment Contributes to Selective Increase of Antibiotic Resistance Among Acinetobacter spp. Sci. Total Environ., 407: p. 3702−3706.
  148. Zhang, F., Li, Y., Yang, M., Li, W. 2012. Content of Heavy Metals in Animal Feeds and Manures from Farms of Different Scales in Northeast China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 9 (8): p. 2658−2668.
  149. Zhang, Y.,  Zhuang, Y., Geng, J.,  Ren, H.,  Zhang, Y., Ding, L.,  Xu, K. 2015. Inactivation of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Municipal Wastewater Effluent by Chlorination and Sequential UV/Chlorination Disinfection. Science of the Total Environment 512–513: p. 125–132
  150. Zhu, Y-G., Johnson, T.A, Sua, J-Q., Qiao, M., Guo, G-X., Stedtfeld, R.D., Hashsham, S.A., Tiedje, J.M. 2012. Diverse and Abundant Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Chinese Swine Farms. PNAS, vol. 110 (9): p.3435–3440
  151. Zhu, Y.-G., Johnson, T.A., Su, J.-Q., Qiao, M., Guo, G.-X., Stedtfeld, R.D., Hashsham, S.A., Tiedje, J.M. 2013. Diverse and Abundant Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Chinese Swine Farms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., p. 3435−3440.
  152. Zou, S.C., Xu, W.H., Zhang, R.J., Tang, J.H., Chen, Y.J., Zhang, G. 2011. Occurrence and Distribution of Antibiotics in Coastal Water of the Bohai Bay, China: Impacts of River Discharge and Aquaculture Activities. Environmental Pollution 159: p. 2913-2920.
Publication Details
  Published in : Volume 1 | Issue 4 | September-October 2015
  Date of Publication : 2015-10-25
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 128-139
Manuscript Number : IJSRST151431
Publisher : Technoscience Academy
PRINT ISSN : 2395-6011
ONLINE ISSN : 2395-602X
Cite This Article :
Ohidul Alam, Tianlin Deng, "Environmental and Public Health Risks Associated with Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) Spread in Environment: A Comprehensive Review ", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology(IJSRST), Print ISSN : 2395-6011, Online ISSN : 2395-602X, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp.128-139, September-October-2015
URL : http://ijsrst.com/IJSRST151431