A Review of False Smut Disease in Rice

Authors(7) :-Ali Sattari, H-Nohtani, HO-Nasirpour, M-Ghadami, MO-Madahinasab, K- Moradi, Mo-Noorozi

False smut disease is caused by Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke) Takahashi on rice. It has become a serious pathogen in almost all rice growing areas in the world. The fungus over winters in soil by means of sclerotia and chlamydospores. Sclerotia produce ascospores, which are primary source of infection to rice plants, whereas secondary infection may come from air borne chlamydospores. a precise assessment method to evaluate the severity of the disease was developed. The ‘yield representative’ (YR) based on ‘mean floret wt.’ and ‘filled grain %’ was simulated for the precise disease severity assessment of rice false smut disease. Different fungicides or bio control agents against false smut were applied at different times before heading on a susceptible rice variety. three dsRNA segments from the rice false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens,the causal agent of a serious disease in rice, with molecular size ranging from 1.3 to 5 Kb, were isolated and named as dsRNA L, dsRNA M, and dsRNA S. To investigate population genetics, it is necessary to find markers that are polymorphic, such as multilocus DNA fingerprinting, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) or amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP).

Authors and Affiliations

Ali Sattari
Phd. student of Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Iran
M.Sc. Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Iran
M.Sc. student Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Iran
Phd. student of Department of Agronomy and Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Iran
Deptartment of Agronomy, Payame Noor University, Iran
K- Moradi
Phd. student of Department of Agronomy and Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Iran
Tanin Keshtzar Sabz Agricultural Research, Service and Production Cooperative Company, Iran

False Smut Disease, Ustilaginoidea Virens, Chlamydospores, Precise Assessment

  1. Ashizawa T, Takahashi M, Moriwaki J, Hirayae K. 2010. Quantification of the rice false smut pathogen U.virens from soil in Japan using real-time PCR. European J. Plant Pathol. 128: 221-2
  2. Atia MMM. 2004. Rice false smut (U. viren) in Egypt. J. Plant.Dis. Prot. 111: 71-82.
  3. Chiba S, Salaipeth L, Lin YH, Sasaki A, Kanematsu S, Suzuki N.2009. A novel bipartite double-stranded RNA mycovirus from the white root rot fungus Rosellinia necatrix: molecular and biological biological characterization, taxonomic considerations,and potential for biological control. J. Virol.83, 12801–12812.
  4. Cooke MC. 1978. Some extra-European fungi. Grevillea 7, 13–15.
  5. Dutech C, Enjalbert J, Fournier E, Delmotte F, Barre`s B, Carlier J, Tharreau D, Giraud T. 2007. Challenges of microsatellite isolation in fungi. Fungal Genetics and Biology 44, 933-949.
  6. Fujita Y, Sonoda R, Yaegashi H. 1990. Evaluation of the false smut resistance in rice. Ann Rep Plant Prot North Jpn, 41: 205. (in Japanese with English abstract).
  7. Guo X, Li Y, Fan J, Li L, Huang F, Wang W. 2012. Progress in the study of false smut disease in rice. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A, 2,1211–1217.
  8. Herrero N, Duenas E, Moraga EQ, Zabalgogeazcoa I. 2012. Prevalence and diversity of viruses in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78, 8523–8530.
  9. Hu M, Luo L, Wang S, Liu Y, Li J. 2014. Infection process of Ustilaginoidea virensduring artificial inoculation of rice panicles.European Journal of Plant Pathology, 139, 67–77.
  10. IRRI. 2002. Standard Evaluation System for Rice, International Rice testing Program (2nd edition). Los Banos,Philippines, International Rice Research Institute, p 19.
  11. Ji F, Cao H, Xu J, Yin X, Shi J. 2012. Simultaneous quantitative determination of ustiloxin A and ustiloxin D in rice grains by high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.Chinese Journal of Rice Science, 26, 246–250.
  12. Jie Z, Jun-Zi Z, Xiang-Hua L,Dan C,• Hong-Jian Z, Bi-Da G.2014. Complete genome sequence and organization of a novel virus from the rice false smut fungusUstilaginoidea virens. Virus Genes 48:329–333.
  13. Koiso Y, Li Y, Iwasaki S, Hanaoka K, Kobayashi T, Sonoda R., et al. (1994). Ustiloxins, antimitotic cyclic peptides from false smut balls on rice panicles caused byUstilaginoidea virens. The Journal of Antibiotics, 47, 765–773.
  14. Kurauchi K, Kudo Y, Kimura T, Uemura T. 2006. Difference in resistance to false smut disease between rice cultivars in Aomori prefecture. Ann Rep Plant Prot North Jpn,  57: 17–21. (in Japanese with English abstract).
  15. Ladhalakshmi D, Laha GS, Singh R, Karthikeyan A, Mangrauthia SK, Sundaram RM, Thukkaiyannan, P, Viraktamath C. 2012. Isolation and characterization of U. virensand survey of false smut disease of rice in India. Phytoparasitica 40: 171-176.
  16. Li XJ, Liu EM, Xiao QM, Liu NX, Wang JH, Tan XP,Zheng HB. 2011. Rating of rice resistance againstUstilaginoidea virensand relationship between resistance and yield loss. J Hunan Agric Univ Nat Sci 37:275–279.
  17. Li Y, Liu Y, Zhang R, Yu M, Chen Z. 2012. Genetic diversity of Ustilaginoidea virens from rice in Jiangsu province. Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Science 28, 296-301(in Chinese, abstract in English).
  18. Li YS, Zhang YD, Zhu Z, Zhao L, Wang CL. 2008a. QTL analysis for resistance to rice false smut by using recombinant inbred lines in rice. Chin J Rice Sci, 22(5): 472–476. (in Chinese with English abstract).
  19. Li YS, Zhu Z, Zhang YD, Zhao L, Wang CL. 2008b. Genetic analysis of rice false smut resistance using major gene plus polygene mixed genetic model. Acta Agron Sin,  34(10): 1728–1733. (in Chinese with English abstract).
  20. Liang Y, Zhang X, Li D, Huang F, Hu P, Peng Y. 2014. Integrated Approach to Control False Smut in Hybrid Rice. Rice Science, 21(6): 354−360.
  21. Liu HQ, Fu YP, Jiang DH, Li GQ, Xie J, Peng YL, Yi XH, Ghabrial SA. 2009. A novel mycovirus that is related to the human pathogen hepatitis E virus and Rubi-like viruses. J. Virol.83,1981–1991.
  22. Liu YL, Chen ZY, Zhou MG, Zhang J, Song FP, Liu YZ, Luo CP. 2007. Analysis on antifungal and antibacterial activities of Bacillus subtilisstrain Bs-916 and its extract. Chin J Pest Sci, 9(1): 92–95. (in Chinese with English abstract).
  23. Lu D, Yang X Q, Mao J H, Ye H L, Wang P, Chen Y P, He Z Q,Chen F. 2009. Characterising the pathogenicity diversity of  Ustilaginoidea virensto hybrid rice in China. J Plant Pathol, 91(2): 443–451.
  24. Lu DH, Yang XQ, Mao JH, Ye HL, Wang P, Chen YP, He ZQ, Chen F. 2009. Characterizing the pathogenicity diversity of U. virens in hybrid rice in China. J. Plant Pathol. 91: 443-451.
  25. Lu S, Tian J, Sun W, Meng J, Wang X, Fu X et al., 2014. Bis-naphtho-c-pyrones from fungi and their bioactivities.Molecules, 19, 7169–7188.
  26. Mathew S, Baite RK, Sharma T, prameela D, sharma K. Morphological and molecular characterization of Ustilaginoidea virensisolates causing false smut of rice in India. Indian Phytopath.67 (3) : 222-227.
  27. Miyazaki S, Matsumoto Y, Uchihara T, Morimoto K. 2009. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of ustiloxin A in forage rice silage. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 71, 239–241.
  28. Nuss DL. 2005. Hypovirulence: mycoviruses at the fungal-plant interface. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 3, 632–642.
  29. Rouxel M, Papura D, Nogueira M, Machefer V, Dezette D, Richard-Cervera S, Carrere S, Mestre P, Delmotte F. 2012. Microsatellite markers for the characterization of native and introduced populations of Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78, 6337-6340.
  30. Rush MC, Shahjahan AKM., Jones JP. 2000. Outbreak of false smut of rice in Louisiana. Plant Dis. 84:100.
  31. Santana QC, Coetzee MPA, Steenkamp ET, Mlonyeni OX, Hammond GNA, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD. 2009. Microsatellite discovery by deep sequencing of enriched genomic libraries. Biotechniques 46, 217-223.
  32. Shan T, Sun W, Liu H, Gao S, Lu S, Wang M, et al., 2012. Determination and analysis of ustiloxins A and B by LC-ESI–MS and HPLC in false smut balls of rice. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13, 11275–11287.
  33. Singh AK, Pophaly DJ. 2010. An unusual rice false smut epidemic reported in Raigarh District, Chhattisgarh. International Rice Research Notes 35: 1-3.
  34. Sonoda R, Fujita Y, Yaegashi H. 1992. Varietal difference in resistance of rice to false smut. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn, 58: 561–562. (in Japanese with English abstract).
  35. Sun X, Kang S, Zhang Y, Tan X, Yu Y, He H, Zhang X, Liu Y, Wang S, Sun W, Cai L, Li S. 2013. Genetic diversity and population structure of rice pathogen Ustilaginoidea virensin China. PLos One 11, e76879.
  36. Tang YX, Jin J, Hu DW, Yong ML, Xu Y, He LP. 2013. Elucidation of the infection process of Ustilaginoidea virens(teleomorph:Villosiclava virens) in rice spikelets.Plant Pathology, 62, 1–8.
  37. Tsuda M, Sasahara M, Ohara T, Kato S. 2006. Optimal application timing of simeconazole granules for control of rice kernel smut and false smut. J G Plant Pathol, 72(5): 301–304.
  38. Urmila D, Sudhi R, Dhua K. 2015. Precise Disease Severity Assessment for False Smut Disease of Rice. Division of Crop Protection, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, India.
  39. Wang F, Zhang S, Liu MG, Lin XS, Liu HJ, Peng YL, Lin Y, Huang JB, Luo CX. 2014. Genetic diversity analysis reveals thatgeographical environment plays a more important role than rice cultivars on population selection of Villosiclava virens. Applied and Environmental Microbiologydoi:10.1128/AEM.03936-13.
  40. Yu C, Jian Y,Wen-Xiang W,Xue Y,Ai-Fang Z.2014. Simple and rapid detection of rice false smut pathogen Ustilaginoidea virensin rice seeds. Phytoparasitica  42:371–375.
  41. Zhang Y, Zhang K, Fang A, Han Y, Yang J, Xue M., et al. (2014). Specific adaptation of Ustilaginoidea virensin occupying host florets revealed by comparative and functional genomics.Nature Communications, 5, 3849
  42. Zhou L, Lu S, Shan T, Wang P, Sun W, Chen Z, et al. 2012. Chemistry and biology of mycotoxins from rice false smut pathogen. In B. J. Melborn & J. C. Greene (Eds.),Mycotoxins: Properties, applications and hazards(pp. 109–129). New York: Nova Science Publishers
  43. Zhou Y L, Fan J J, Zeng C Z, Liu X Z, Wang S, Zhao K J. 2004. Preliminary analysis of genetic diversity and population struction of Ustilaginoidea firens. Acta Phytopathol Sin, 34: 436–445. (in Chinese with English abstract).
  44. Zhou Y, Pan Y, Xie W, Zhu L, Xu J, Wang S,Li Z. 2008. Genetic diversity of rice false smut fungus, Ustilaginoidea virensand its pronounced differentiation of populations in north China. Journal of Phytopathology 156, 559-564.
  45. Zhou YL, Izumitsu K, Sonoda R, Nakazaki T, Tanaka E,Tsuda M.,et al.(2003. PCR-based specific detection of Ustilaginoidea virens and Ephelis japonica. Journal of Phytopathology, 151,513–518

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 1 | Issue 5 | November-December 2015
Date of Publication : 2015-12-25
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 170-174
Manuscript Number : IJSRST151536
Publisher : Technoscience Academy

Print ISSN : 2395-6011, Online ISSN : 2395-602X

Cite This Article :

Ali Sattari, H-Nohtani, HO-Nasirpour, M-Ghadami, MO-Madahinasab, K- Moradi, Mo-Noorozi, " A Review of False Smut Disease in Rice", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology(IJSRST), Print ISSN : 2395-6011, Online ISSN : 2395-602X, Volume 1, Issue 5, pp.170-174, November-December-2015.
Journal URL : http://ijsrst.com/IJSRST151536

Article Preview