Blast Disease in Rice: A Review

Authors(5) :-Farshad Karamian, AM-Heydari Nezhad, Ab-Nokhbeh Zaeim, K-Moradi, AH-Drakhshan

Rice blast caused by the fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe grisea (anamorph: Pyricularia grisea) limits rice yield in all major rice-growing regions of the world and the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is responsible for the most serious disease of rice and is a continuing threat to ensuring global food security. The fungus has also, however, emerged as a model experimental organism for understanding plant infection processes by pathogenic fungi. This hemibiotrophic pathogen penetrates in epidermal cells and causes lesions on leaves, leaf collar, culm, culm nodes and panicle neck causing failure of seed filling. After successful penetration, the invasive hyphae grow rapidly in the host cells and caused blast lesions. in 5 to 7 days, the pathogen produces numerous conidia from the lesions and initiates a new infection cycle. A number of signal transduction pathways are implicated in appressorium-mediated plant infection and have been characterised as a potential means of developing new chemical intervention strategies for disease control. With the advent of new technologies like marker-assisted selection, molecular mapping, map-based cloning, marker-assisted backcrossing and allele mining, breeders have identified more than 100 Pi loci and 350 QTL in rice genome responsible for blast disease.

Authors and Affiliations

Farshad Karamian
Phd. student of Department of Agronomy and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Iran
AM-Heydari Nezhad
Phd. student of Department of Agronomy and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University,Iran3M.Sc.
Ab-Nokhbeh Zaeim
Department of Agronomy and Agroecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,Iran
Phd. student of Department of Agronomy and Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Iran
Phd. student of Zabol University and Institute jahad daneshgahi of Kashmar. Iran

Rice Blast, Magnaporthe Oryzae, Lesions, Marker-Assisted Selection

  1. Bartlett DW, Clough JM, Godwin JR, Hall AA, Hamer M, Parr-Dobrzanski B. 2000. The strobilurin fungicides.Pest Management Science, 58, 649–662.
  2. Bonman JM. 1992. Durable resistance to rice blast disease environmental influences. Euphytica 63: 115–123
  3. Burd C, Cullen PJ. 2014. Retromer: A Master Conductor of Endosome Sorting. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 6: a016774.
  4. Chen Y,Yang X,Yuan K, Li Y, Zhang AF, Yao Y, Gao C. 2015. Effect of azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl on rice blast and rice grain yield in China. doi:10.1111/aab.12202
  5. Comai, L, Young, K, Till, B.J, Reynolds, SH, Greene, EA, Codomo, CA, Enns, LC, Johnson, JE, Burtner, C and Odden AR. 2004. Efficient discovery of DNA polymorphisms in natural populations by Ecotilling. The Plant Journal 37: 778-786.
  6. De Jong JC, McCormack BJ, Smirnoff N, Talbot NJ. 1997. Glycerol generates turgor in rice blast. Nature. 389: 244–5
  7. Dean JA, Van ZA, Pretorius KE, Hammond-Kosack A, Pietro PD, Spanu JJ, Rudd M, Dickman R, Kahmann J, Ellis GD. 2012. Foster, The top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology, Molecular Plant Pathology. 13: 414-430
  8. Dean R, Talbot NJ, Ebbole DJ, Farman ML, Mitchell TK, Orbach MJ, Thon M, Kulkarni R, Xu JR, Pan H, Read ND, Lee YH, Carbone I, Brown D, Oh YY, Donofrio N, Jeong JS, Soanes DM, Djonovic S, Kolomiets E, Rehmeyer C, Li W, Harding M, Kim S, Lebrun MH, Bohnert H, Coughlan S, Butler J, Calvo S, Ma LJ, Nicol R, Purcell S, Nusbaum C, Galagan J, Birren BW. 2005. The genome sequence of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Nature. 434: 980–986
  9. Fernandez J, Marroquin-Guzman M, Wilson RA. 2014. Mechanisms of nutrient acquisition and utilization during fungal infections of leaves. Annual Review of Phytopathology. 52: 8.1–8.20
  10. Groth DE. 2006. Azoxystrobin rate and timing effects on rice head blast incidence and rice grain and milling yields. Plant Disease,90, 1055–1058.
  11. Hayashi K, Hashimoto N, Daigen M, Ashikawa I. 2004. Development of PCR-based SNP markers for rice blast resistance genes at the Piz locus. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 108: 1212-1220.
  12. Hayashi K, Yoshida H, Ashikawa I. 2006. Development of PCR-based allelespecific and InDel marker sets for nine rice blast resistance genes, Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 113: 251–260.
  13. He YY, Li J, Li C, Kiyosawa S, Higashi T, Horisue N. 1989. Gene analysis of blast resistance of Yunnan upland rice variety, Haonaihuan. Oryza. 26:173–182
  14. Hittalmani S, Kahani F, Dhanagond SM and Rao AM. 2013. DNA marker characterization for allele mining of blast and bacterial leaf blight resistant genes and evaluation for grain yield. African Journal of Biotechnology. 12: 2331-2340
  15. Howard RJ, Ferrari MA, Roach DH, Money NP. 1991. Penetration of hard substrates by a fungus employing enormous turgor pressures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. USA. 88: 11281–11284.
  16. Huang CL, Hwang SY, Chiang YC and Lin TP. 2008. Molecular evolution of the Pi-ta gene resistant to rice blast in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon). Genetics 179: 1527-1538.
  17. Huang X, Feng Q, Qian Q, Zhao Q, Wang L, Wang A, Guan J, Fan D, Weng Q and Huang T. 2009. High- throughput genotyping by whole- genome resequencing. Genome Research. 19: 1068-1076
  18. Katagiri M, Uesugi Y. 1977. Similarities between the fungicidal action of isoprothiolane and organophosphorus thiolate fungicides. Phytopathology,67, 1415–1417
  19. Kim S, Park S-Y, Kim KS, Rho H-S, Chi M-H, Choi J. 2009. Homeobox transcription factors are required for conidiation and appressorium evelopment in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. PLoS Genet. 5: e1000757
  20. Kim YS, Dixon EW, Vincelli P, Farman ML. 2003. Field resistance to strobilurin (Q oI) fungicides inPyricularia grisea caused by mutations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.Phytopathology,93, 891–900
  21. Koide N, Kobayashi D, Xu Y, Fukuta S. 2010. Resistance genes and selection DNA markers for blast disease in rice, Oryza sativa, Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly (JARQ). 43: 255–280.
  22. Koumandou VL, Klute MJ, Herman EK, Nunez-Miguel R, Dacks JB. 2011. Evolutionary reconstruction of the retromer complex and its function in Trypanosoma brucei. Journal of Cell Science 124: 1496–1509.
  23. Kumari A, Das A, Devanna B, Thakur S, Singh P, Singh N and Sharma T. 2013. Mining of rice blast resistance gene Pi54 shows effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms on phenotypic expression of the alleles. European Journal of Plant Pathology 137: 55-65.
  24. Li G, Zhou X, Xu JR. 2012. Genetic control of infection-related development in Magnaporthe oryzae. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 15: 678–84.
  25. Li W, Lei CL, Cheng ZJ, Jia YL, Huang DY, Wang JL, Wang JK, Zhang X, Su N, Guo XP, Zhai HQ, Wan JM. 2008a. Identification of SSR markers for a broad-spectrum blast resistance gene Pi20(t) for marker-assisted breeding. Molecular Breeding. 22: 141–149
  26. Li YB, Wu CJ, Jiang GH, Wang LQ, He YQ. 2007. Dynamic analyses of rice blast resistance for the assessment of genetic and environmental effects. Plant Breed. 126: 541–547
  27. Marie E, Crystel B, Marie J, Océane F, Roland B, Marc H, Michel D. 2015. Methionine Biosynthesis is Essential for Infection in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. PLoS One. 10: e0111108.
  28. Maruzs T, Lorincz P, Szatmari Z, Szeplaki S, Sandor Z. 2015. Retromer Ensures the Degradation of Autophagic Cargo by Maintaining Lysosome Function in Drosophila. Traffic. 10: 1088-1107
  29. Miah G, Rafii MR, Ismail AB, Puteh HA, Rahim KN, Islam MA, Latif S. 2013. A review of microsatellite markers and their applications in rice breeding programs to improve blast disease resistance, International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 14: 22499–22528.
  30. Pabo CO, Sauer RT.1992. Transcription factors: structural families and principles of DNA recognition. Annual Review of Biochemistry. 61: 1053–95
  31. Pennisi E. 2010. Armed and dangerous. Science 327: 804–805
  32. Ramkumar G, Biswal A, Mohan KM, Sakthivel K, Sivaranjani A, Neeraja C, Ram T, Balachandran S, Sundaram R and Prasad M. 2010. Identifying novel alleles of rice blast resistance genes Pik hand Pita through allele mining. Plant Breeding.
  33. Sax K. 1923.The association of size differences with seed-coat pattern and pigmentation in Phaseolus vulgaris. Genetics, 8: 552–560
  34. Scheuermann KK, Raimondi JV, Marschalek R, Andrade A, Wickert E. 2012. Magnaporthe oryzae genetic diversity and its outcomes on the search for durable resistance. INTECH Open Access Publisher
  35. Seaman MN, McCaffery JM, Emr SD. 1998. A membrane coat complex essential for endosome-to-Golgi retrograde transport in yeast. The Journal of Cell Biology 142: 665–681.
  36. Seaman MNJ. 2012. The retromer complex—endosomal protein recycling and beyond. Journal of Cell Science 125: 4693–4702.
  37. Solomon PS, Tan KC, Oliver RP. 2003. The nutrient supply of pathogenic fungi: a fertile field for study. Molecular Plant Pathology. 4: 203–210
  38. Talbot NJ. 2003. on the trail of a cereal killer: exploring the biology of Magnaporthe grisea. Annual Review of Microbiology. 57: 177–202.
  39. Tang W, Ru Y, Hong L, Zhu Q, Zuo R, Guo X. 2015. System-wide characterization of bZIP transcription factor proteins involved in infection-related morphogenesis of Magnaporthe oryzae. Environmental microbiology. 17: 1377-1396.
  40. 40Torres AM. 2010. Application of Molecular Markers for Breeding Disease Resistant Varieties in Crop Plants. In Molecular Techniques in Crop Improvement; Jain SM, Brar DS, Eds, Springer Science and Business Media BV. Dordrecht, The Netherlands pp. 185–205
  41. Valent B, Chumley FG. 1991. Molecular genetic analysis of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Annual Review of Phytopathology. 29: 443–67
  42. Valent B, Khang CH. 2010. Recent advances in rice blast effector research. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 13: 434–441
  43. 42Wang GL, Mackill DJ, Bonman JM, McCouch SR, Champoux MC, Nelson RJ. 1994. RFLP mapping of genes conferring complete and partial resistance to blast in a durably resistant rice cultivar. Genetics 136: 1421–1434
  44. Wilson RA, Talbot NT. 2009. Under pressure: investigating the biology of plant infection by Magnaporthe oryzae, Nature Reviews Microbiology 7: 185-195.
  45. Wu JL, Fan YY, Li DB, Zheng KL, Leung H, Zhuang JY. 2005. Genetic control of rice blast resistance in the durably resistant cultivar Gumei 2 against multiple isolates. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 111: 50-56.
  46. Wu SC, Halley JE, Luttig C, Fernekes LM, Gutiérrez-Sanchez G, Darvill AG, Albersheim P. 2006. Identification of an endo-β-1,4-Dxylanase from Magnaporthe grisea by gene knockout analysis, urification, and heterologous expression. Applied and environmental microbiology 72: 986–993.
  47. Yang MZ, Cheng ZQ, Chen SN, Qian J, Xu LL and Huang XQ. 2007. A rice blast-resistance genetic resource from wild rice in Yunnan, China. Journal of Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology 33: 589-595.
  48. Yang S, Gu T, Pan C, Feng Z, Ding J, Hang Y, Chen JQ and Tian D. 2008. Genetic variation of NBS-LRR class resistance genes in rice lines. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 116: 165-177.
  49. Yu J, Hu S, Wang J,Wong JKS, Li S, Liu B, Zhang B. 2002. A draft sequence of the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica), Science 296: 79–92.
  50. Zhang C, Huang X, Wang J, Zhou M. 2009. Resistance development in rice blast disease caused byMagnaporthe griseato tricyclazole.Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology,94,43–47
  51. Zhang H, Zhao Q, Liu K, Zhang Z, Wang Y, Zheng X. 2009. MgCRZ1, a transcription factor of Magnaporthe grisea, controls growth, development and is involved in full virulence. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 293: 160–9
  52. Zhou B, Qu S, Liu G, Dolan M, Sakai H, Lu G, Bellizzi M and Wang GL. 2006. The eight amino-acid differences within three leucine-rich repeats between Pi2 and Piz-t resistance proteins determine the resistance specificity to Magnaporthe grisea. Molecular plant microbe interactions 19: 1216-1228.
  53. Zhu X, Chen S, Yang J, Zhou S, Zeng L, Han J, Su J, Wang L and Pan Q. 2012. The identification of Pi50 (t), a new member of the rice blast resistance Pi2/Pi9 multigene family. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 124: 1295-1304.

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 1 | Issue 5 | November-December 2015
Date of Publication : 2015-12-31
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 228-232
Manuscript Number : IJSRST151546
Publisher : Technoscience Academy

Print ISSN : 2395-6011, Online ISSN : 2395-602X

Cite This Article :

Farshad Karamian, AM-Heydari Nezhad, Ab-Nokhbeh Zaeim, K-Moradi, AH-Drakhshan, " Blast Disease in Rice: A Review", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology(IJSRST), Print ISSN : 2395-6011, Online ISSN : 2395-602X, Volume 1, Issue 5, pp.228-232, November-December-2015.
Journal URL :

Article Preview