Home > Archives > IJSRST162579 IJSRST-Library

Effects of Ethanol Leaf Extract and Fractions of Bixa Orellana L. On Haematological Profile in Albino Rats

Authors(2) :-Obiwulu N. M., Esenowo G. J.

The study investigated the effects of leaves of Bixa orellana L. on some haematological and biochemical indices of albino rats. The dried leaf powder was subjected to extraction with ethanol and the resultant extract further underwent fractionation with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and butanol to yield their respective fractions and the aqueous extract. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaf and analysis of the effects of the extracts and fractions on haematological parameters were carried out. Their effect(s) on serum electrolyte concentrations of sodium (Na), potassium (K), bicarbonate (HCO3) and chloride ions (Cl-) was also determined. Median lethal dose (LD50) value of the ethanol leaf extract of Bixa orellana L. was determined in two phases using 45 mice, administered between 10 – 3000mg/kg of the extract. Forty-five albino rats were randomly divided into nine groups of five rats each. Group I served as the control and received 5ml/kg of distilled water, while groups II, III and IV were orally administered with 169.71mg/kg, 339.4mg/kg and 509.1mg/kg of the ethanol extract respectively; the remaining five groups were administered 339.4mg/kg of the butanol, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, n-hexane and aqueous fractions of Bixa orellana for 21 days. Results of the phytochemical screening of Bixa orellana revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, saponnins and cardiac glycosides. The LD50 value of Bixa orellana when administered intraperitoneally was 1697.06 mg/kg. Ethanol extract of Bixa orellana significantly (P=0.05) decreased the WBC particularly neutrophils, PLT and Na concentration in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly (P=0.05) increased in a dose-related fashion the RBC, PCV, Hb and K. All the fractions significantly (P=0.05) decreased the PLT and the WBC with the ethyl-acetate fraction showing the most anti-platelet effect. The ethyl-acetate, chloroform and n-hexane fractions significantly (P=0.05) increased the RBC, PCV and Hb. The high dose of ethanol extract, butanol and ethyl-acetate fractions showed a significant (P=0.05) reduction of Na while K was increased significantly (P=0.05) by the low and middle dose of ethanol extract, and n-hexane fraction. These results indicate that Bixa orellana leaf increases RBC, PCV and Hb, decreases WBC and has an anti-platelet effect. The results lend scientific support to some folkloric uses of Bixa orellana leaves in traditional medicine.
Obiwulu N. M., Esenowo G. J.
Anti-Platelet, Bixa Orellana, Ethanol, Extract, Haematology And Phytochemical
  1. Adebayo, J.O., Adesokan, A.A., Olatunji, L.A., Buoro, D.O. and Soladoye, A.O. (2005). Effect of ethanolic extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves on haematological and serum lipid variables in rats. Biokemistri, 17 (1): 45-50.
  2. Alexander, R. R. and Grifiths. J. M. (1993a). Haemotocrit In: Basic Biochemical Methods, 2nd Ed., New York: John Willey and Sons, Inc. Publications. pp. 186 –187.
  3. Alexander, R. R. and Grifiths. J. M. (1993b). Haemotocrit determination by the cyanomethaemoglobin method In: Biochemical Methods, 2nd Ed, New York: John Willey and Sons, Inc. Publications. pp. 186 – 187.
  4. AOAC, (2003). Official methods of analysis of the association of official’s analytical chemists, 17th Association of official analytical chemists, Arlington, Virginia. pp. 96-105.
  5. Chevellier, A. (1996). The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. London: Dorling Kindersley Ltd., pp. 81-205.
  6. Chopra, R. N. (1949). Poisonous Plants of India. Delhi, India. Pp. 203-210.
  7. Cox, M. (2009). Interpreting Blood Tests and Investigations. RCN Conference, January, 2009.
  8. DeMeyer, S. F., Vanhooelbeke, K. V., Broos, K., Salles, I. I. and Deckmyn, H. (2008). Antiplatelet drugs. Brazilian Journal of Haematology, 142: 515-528
  9. De-oliveira, A.C., Silva, I.B., Manhaes-Rocha, D.A. and Paumgarrtten, F.J. (2003). Induction of liver mono-oxygenases by Annato and Bixin in female rats. Brazilian Journal of Medical Biology Research, 36: 113-118.
  10. Elisabetsky, E. (1991). Sociopolitical, economical and ethical issues in medicinal plant research. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 32: 235-239.
  11. Elujoba, A. A., Odeleye, O. M. and Ogunyemi, C. M. (2005). Traditional Medicine Development for Medicinal and Dental Primary Health Delivery System in Africa. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2 (1): 466-468.
  12. Etukudo, I. (2003). Ethnobotany: Conventional and Traditional Uses of Plants. Verdicts Press, Uyo. p.191.
  13. Evans, W. C. (2009). Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 16th New York: Sauders Elsevier Limited. pp. 104-262.
  14. Guyton, A. C. and Hall, J. E. (2005). Textbook of Medical Physiology (11th,) Philadelphia: Elsevier Publishers pp. 417-450.
  15. Joshi, P.K., Bose, M. and Harish, D. (2002). Changes in certain haematological parameters in siluroid catfish, Clarias batrachus, exposed to cadmium chloride. Pollution Resources, 21 (2): 129-131.
  16. Kee, N. L. A., Mnonopi, N., Davids, H., Naudé, R. J. and Frost, C. L. (2008). Antithrombotic /anticoagulant and anticancer activities of selected medicinal plants from South Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(3): 217-223.
  17. Kulpmann, W. R. (1992). Determination of electrolytes in serum and plasma. Wien Klin Wochenschr Suppl. 192: 37-41.
  18. Lewis, S. M., Bain, B. J. and Bates, I. (2001). Dacie and Lewis: practical haematology, Ninth Edition, London, New York: Elsevier, pp. 9-40.
  19. Lorke, D. (1983). A New Approach to Practical Acute Toxicity Testing. Arch Toxicol., 53: 275-289.
  20. Lüllmann, H., Morh, K., Ziegler, A. and Bieger, D. (2000). Color Atlas of Pharmacology, 2nd, New York: Thieme Stuttgart. pp. 1-386.
  21. Núñez, V., Otero, R., Barona, J., Saldarriaga, M., Osorio, R. G., Fonnegra, R., Jiménez, S. L., Díaz, and Quintana, J. C. (2004). Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 37 (7): 969-977.
  22. Pawar, R. S., Jain, A. P., Kashaw, S. K. and Singhai, A. K. (2006). Haematopoietic activity of Asteracantha longifolia on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Bone Marrow Suppression. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 68: 337-340.
  23. Rhadhika, B., Begum, N., Srisailam, K. and Reddy, V.M. (2009).Diuretic Activity of Bixa orellana Leaf Extracts. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 1 (3): 353-355.
  24. Schultes, R.E. and Raffauf, R. (1990). The Healing Forest: Medicinal and Toxic plants ofthe Northwest Amazonia. Portland, Oregon. Pp 109-111.
  25. Sofowora, E. A. (1993). Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. (2nd). Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Ltd. pp. 181-204.
  26. Terashima, S., Shimizu, M., Horie, S. and Morita, N. (1991). Studies on aldose reductase inhibitors from natural products. IV. Constituents and aldose reductsase inhibitory effect of Chrysanthemum morifolium, Bixa orellana, and Ipomea batatas. Chemical Pharmocology Bulletin 39: 3346-3347.
  27. Uboh, F. E., Okon, I. E. and Ekong, M. B. (2010). Effect of Aqueous Extract of Psidium guajava Leaves on Liver Enzymes, Histological Integrity and Haematological Indices in Rats. Gastroenterology Research, 3 (1): 32-38.
  28. Varley, H., Cowenlock, A. H. and Bell, M. (1980). Practical Clinical Biochemistry. 5th edition, London: Heinemann, Pp 771-799.
  29. Villar, R., Calleja, J. M., Morales, C. and Caceres, A. (1997). Screening of 17 Guatemalan Medicinal Plants for Platelet Antiaggregant Activity. Phytotherapy Research, 2: 441-445.
  30. World Health Organisation. (1996). Guidelines for the Assessment of Herbal Medicines. WHO Expert Committee on Specification for Pharmaceutical Preparation Technical Reports Series. No. 863, Geneva.
  31. Zheng, W. and Wang S. (2001). Antioxidant activity of Phenolic compounds in selected Herbs. Agric. Food Chem. 49: (11): 5165 – 5170.
Publication Details
  Published in : Volume 2 | Issue 6 | November-December 2016
  Date of Publication : 2016-12-30
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 153-163
Manuscript Number : IJSRST162579
Publisher : Technoscience Academy
PRINT ISSN : 2395-6011
ONLINE ISSN : 2395-602X
Cite This Article :
Obiwulu N. M., Esenowo G. J., "Effects of Ethanol Leaf Extract and Fractions of Bixa Orellana L. On Haematological Profile in Albino Rats", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology(IJSRST), Print ISSN : 2395-6011, Online ISSN : 2395-602X, Volume 2, Issue 6 , pp.153-163, November-December-2016
URL : http://ijsrst.com/IJSRST162579