Home > Archives > IJSRST162583
Africa's Wars, Woes And The Elusive Peace : Strategic Options To Peace Building
Authors(2) :-Dr. Irene Ashioya, Dr. Jane Amunga
Africa has been rated as having the largest number of armed conflicts with about 15 countries having been homes of armed conflicts in the recent past. Building lasting peace in some of the war torn countries has been a daunting challenge for global, regional and national peace building initiatives. Regrettably, there is no peace anywhere in sight in a number of states despite the fact that, almost half of the 51 United Nations States Peace Keeping missions have been deployed to Africa. Although there are nations that have emerged painfully from the devastating conflicts, some have slid back into violence eroding the minimal peace gains realized. Again, despite the increase in democratic regimes, contested elections have in some places resulted in violence and chaos derailing the very process of democracy. Anarchy in one country more often than not has spill effects in neighboring countries. Most warring African states have to grapple with problems of proliferation of small arms and light weapons which are easily and cheaply available due to porous borders; lack of controls and stringent legislation as well as religious and ethnic intolerance. Worse still, there are states that have fueled conflicts in their own countries and facilitated the plunder of their own resources by making payments for arms in kind through mining concessions and allowing access to significant natural resources. Arms embargoes have proved futile in cases where states have discovered the trick of ‘triangulation.’ This paper catalogues the recurrent conflicts in some pockets of Africa and why peace remains a mirage in these countries. It also examines the fresh outbreaks of violence and highlights factors militating against peace building efforts. This paper advocates for strategic peace building which has a stakeholder involvement approach that can guarantee sustained peace.
Dr. Irene Ashioya, Dr. Jane Amunga
Woes, Elusive, Strategic, Peace Building, Proliferation, Triangulation, Militating, Mirage And Plunder.
- ACTION (2003). Transforming Conflict: Reflections of practitioners worldwide. Cambodia: SRC Printing.
- Adebayo, A., & Peterson, M. (2009). Peace building in post-cold war Africa: Problems, progress and prospects. Research and policy seminar in Gaborone, Botswana, 25th -28th August, 2009.
- Adebajo, A. (2002). Building Peace in West Africa. London: Lynne Rienner publishers.
- AEFJN (2010). Arms exports and transfers: From Sub-Saharan Africa to Sub-Saharan Africa.
- Africa Report No 198 (2013, February 14). Sudan’s spreading conflict (I): War in South Kordofan. Nairobi.
- Allison, S. (2013, September 3). Fragile Somalia loses two lifelines in quick succession. Daily Maverick.
- Bouata, T., Frerks, G. Bannon, I. (2005). Gender, conflict, and Development. Washington DC: World Bank
- BBC News (2013). DR Congo profile.
- Elbadawi, I., & Samabanis, N. (2000). Why are there so many civil wars in Africa? Understanding and preventing violent conflict. Journal of African Economics.
- Elmi, A., & Barise, A. (2010). The Somali conflict: Root causes, obstacles and peace building strategies. African Security Review 15 (1). 32-54.
- Hansen, S. (2003). Warlords and peace strategies: The case of Somalia. Journal of Conflict Studies 23 (2).
- International Alert (2012). Ending the dreadlock: Towards a new vision of peace in Eastern DRC. London: International Alert.
- IRIN (2013, August 15). Briefing: The humanitarian situation in Dafur.
- Joe, B. (2007, January 22). Congo war driven crisis kills 45,000 a month: Study.
- McCullum, H. (2007). Small arms –The world’s weapons of mass destruction. Ezine, Vol 5.
- Menkhaus, K. (2009). Somalia: The created a desert and called it peace (building). Review of African Political Economy, 36 (120), 223-233.
- Muhamed, M. (2013, July 12). Somalia hostility threatens peace efforts. The Standard Group. Pp1-2.
- Mulu, F. K.(2008). The role of Regional organizations in conflict management: IGAD and the Sudanese Civil War. Nairobi: Catholic University of Eastern Africa.
- Mussanzi, B. (2001). ‘How can we receive encouragement for Conflict Transformation Improvement after repeating ethnic clashes?’ CRC: Democratic Republic of Congo.
- Ndiku, J. (2011). The role of teachers in conflict transformation in Mount Elgon region, Kenya. AN unpublished PhD thesis submitted to Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega
- Peace Direct (2011). Sudan and South Sudan: Guide to conflicts and peace building in Sudan and South Sudan.
- Reuters (2008, January 22). Congo war driven crisis kills 45,000 a month.
- Rosen, A. (2013, June 26). The origins of war in the DRC. Global Channel.
- Schroeder, M., & Lamb, G. (2006). The illicit arms trade in Africa: A Global Enterprise. Third Quarter, Issue 1, 69-78.
- Stewart F. (2002). Root causes of violent conflict in developing countries. BJM VOL. 324. P. 342-345.
- Suliman, M. (2005). “Ecology, Politics and Violent conflict.” Respect: Sudanese Journal For Human Rights, Culture and issues of Cultural Diversity. Issue 1Nov; 2005.
- Thomson Reuters Foundation (2013, July 9). Sudan conflicts.
- UNDP (2012). Somalia Human Development Report: Empowering the youth for peace and development. Nairobi: UNDP.
- UNICEF (2013). Help save children in Dafur: Sudan humanitarian relief. New York: UNICEF.
- World Report (2013).Somalia. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Published in : Volume 2 | Issue 5 | September-October 2016
Date of Publication : 2016-08-31
License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 323-330
Manuscript Number : IJSRST162583
Publisher : Technoscience Academy
PRINT ISSN : 2395-6011
ONLINE ISSN : 2395-602X
Cite This Article :
Dr. Irene Ashioya, Dr. Jane Amunga, "Africa's Wars, Woes And The Elusive Peace : Strategic Options To Peace Building", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology(IJSRST), Print ISSN : 2395-6011, Online ISSN : 2395-602X, Volume 2, Issue 5, pp.323-330, September-October-2016
URL : http://ijsrst.com/IJSRST162583