Home > Archives > IJSRST17338
Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Residues in Assorted Vegetables Collected from Markets in Monrovia, Liberia
Authors(4) :-R. S. Ngumbu, F. P. Sumo, J. B. Kiazolu, P. S. Humphrey
Vegetables are considered as important dietary components because they often contain essential vitamins, minerals, and fibers that are protective against chronic diseases. Despite the nutritional importance of vegetables, they are quite susceptible to heavy metals contamination. Vegetable contamination by heavy metals can result into bioaccumulation of these toxic contaminants in body tissues of consumers. The current study, therefore, sought to investigate the levels of some toxic heavy metals (lead and cadmium) in edible vegetables sold in major markets in Monrovia, Liberia. A total of thirty-six vegetable samples belonging to six plant species were randomly sampled from the markets. After sample preparation, flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) was used for the determination of heavy metal concentrations. The concentrations of the heavy metals (mg kg-1) ranged as follows: lead (Pb) 0.093-0.470 and cadmium (Cd) 0.042-0.131. The metal levels in the vegetable samples were generally below the FAO/WHO maximum permissible limits, indicating that, at the moment, the tested vegetable samples are safe for human consumption with respect to levels of Pb and Cd. However, considerable attention should be paid to the potential health risk of heavy metals via other exposure pathways and other regions of Liberia.
R. S. Ngumbu, F. P. Sumo, J. B. Kiazolu, P. S. Humphrey
Vegetables, Cadmium, Lead, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Monrovia, Liberia
- Akan JC, Kolo BG, Yikala BS, Ogugbuaja VO (2013). Determinations of Some Heavy Metals in Vegetable Samples from Biu Local Government Area, Borno State, North Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 40-46.
- Akinola MO, Ekiyoyo TA (2006). Accumulation of lead, cadmium and chromium in some plants cultivated along the bank of river Ribila at Odo-nla area of Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria. J. Environ. Biol., 27(3): 597-599.
- Al Jassir MS, Shaker A, Khaliq MA (2005). Deposition of heavy metals on green leafy vegetables sold on roadsides of Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 75: 1020-1027.
- Bati K, Mogobe O, Masamba WRL (2017). Concentrations of some trace elements in vegetables sold at Maun Market in Botswana. Journal of Food Research; Vol. 6, No. 1. ISSN 1927-0887
- Chen Y, Wu P, Shao Y, Ying Y (2014). Health risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables grown around battery production area. Sci. Agric. v.71, n.2, p.126-132.
- Doherty VF, Sogbanmu TO, Kanife UC,Wright O (2012) . Heavy metals in vegetables collected from selected farm and market sites in Lagos, Nigeria. Global Advanced Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology (ISSN: 2315-5140) Vol. 1(6) pp. 137-142.
- FAO/WHO (2011) Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme codex committee on contaminants in foods, fifth session
- Givianrad MH, Sadeghi T, Larijani K, Hosseini SE (2009). Determination of cadmium and lead in lettuce‚ mint and leek cultivated in different sites of southern Tehran. Food Technology and Nutrition. 8: 38-43.
- Guerra F, Trevizam AR, Muraoka T, Marcante NC, Canniatti-Brazaca SG (2012). Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health. Scientia Agricola 69: 54-60.
- Gupta N., Khan DK, Santra SC (2012). Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables grown in a long-term wastewater irrigated agricultural land of tropical India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 184: 6673-6682
- Lawal AO, Audu AA (2011) Analysis of heavy metals found in vegetables from cultivated irrigated gardens in the Kano metropolis, Nigeria. J Environ Chem Ecotoxicol 3(6):142–148
- Mapanda F, Mangwayana EN, Nyamangara J, Giller KE (2005). The effect of long term irrigation using wastewater on heavy metal contents of soils under vegetables in Harare, Zimbabwe. Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 107:151-165.
- Nazemi S, Khosravi A (2011). A study of heavy metals in soil, water and vegetables. Knowledge and Health. 5: 27-31.
- Ngumbu, RS (2014). Exposure of the population of Monrovia to heavy metals through fish consumption (Thesis, Department of Chemistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology).
- Oforka NC, Osuji LC, Onwuachu UI (2012). Estimation of dietary intake of cadmium, lead, manganese, zinc and nickel due to consumption of chicken meat by inhabitants of Port-Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research, 4(1): 675-684.
- Patrick L (2006a). Lead toxicity, a review of the literature. Part 1: exposure, evaluation, and treatment. Alternative Medicine Review. 11: 2-23.
- Rowland AS, Mckinstry RC (2006). Lead toxicity, white matter lesions, and aging. Neurology. 66: 1464-1465.
- Shagal MH, Maina HM, Donatus RB, Tadzabia K (2012). Bioaccumulation of trace metals concentration in some vegetables grown near refuse and effluent dumpsites along Rumude-Doubeli bye-pass in Yola North, Adamawa State. Global Advanced Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology. 1: 18-22
- Sharma RK, Agrawal MM (2006). Heavy metals contamination in vegetables grown in waste water irrigated areas of Varanasi, India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 66: 258-266 .
- Taghipour H, Mosaferi M (2013). Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites. Health Promot Perspect; 3(2): 185-193.
- Temple NJ, Wilson T, Jacobs Jr. (2012). Nutritional health: strategies for disease prevention. Springer Science and Business Media, London.
Published in : Volume 3 | Issue 3 | March-April 2017
Date of Publication : 2017-04-30
License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 54-58
Manuscript Number : IJSRST17338
Publisher : Technoscience Academy
PRINT ISSN : 2395-6011
ONLINE ISSN : 2395-602X
Cite This Article :
R. S. Ngumbu, F. P. Sumo, J. B. Kiazolu, P. S. Humphrey, "Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Residues in Assorted Vegetables Collected from Markets in Monrovia, Liberia", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology(IJSRST), Print ISSN : 2395-6011, Online ISSN : 2395-602X, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp.54-58, March-April-2017
URL : http://ijsrst.com/IJSRST17338