Aquamarine Gemstone

Authors(2) :-Nazia Sultana, Sankara Pitchaiah Podila

Aquamarine gemstone is one of the Beryl mineral varieties with Beryllium aluminium silicate composition. Its bluish green color caused from Fe2+ions puts it as a special variety. It is used in jewellery and has some industrial applications. This beautiful gemstone is reported from few countries only, namely India, Brazil, Canada, China, Italy, Pakistan, Russia, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, United Kingdom, United States, Mexico and Vietnam. The present study collected its occurrences from various parts of the world and studied the variation of oxides analyzed from Aquamarine. It is observed that SiO2 ranges from 64.99% to 72.48%, Al2O3:11.63% to 19.91%; BeO: 12.9% to 13.79%; FeO: 0.11% to 5.03%; CaO:0.01 %to 0.83%;MgO:0.00% to 1.93%; Na2O:0.10% to 3.53%; K2O:nearly zero to 3.31% and MnO:0.00% to 0.06%.

Authors and Affiliations

Nazia Sultana
Department of Geology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Guntur-522510, Andhra Pradesh, India
Sankara Pitchaiah Podila
Department of Geology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Guntur-522510, Andhra Pradesh, India

Aquamarine Gemstone, Chemical Analysis, Jewellery, Variation of Oxides

  1. Adamo Ilaria, Alessandro Pavese, LoredanaProsperi, Valeria Diella, David Ajò, G. Diego Gatta, and Christopher P. Smith (2008) Aquamarine, Maxixe-Type Beryl, and Hydrothermal Synthetic Blue Beryl: Analysis and Identification, Gems & Gemology, Fall, 214-226
  2. Agheem Muhammad Hassan, Mohammad Tahir Shah, Tahseenullah Khan, Mamoru Murata, Muhammad Arif and HumairaDars (2014) Shigar valley gemstones, their chemical composition and origin, Skardu, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, Arab J Geosci 7:3801–3814
  3. Ahline Nicole and Maryam Mastery Salimi (2017) Mysterious Iridescence in Aquamarine, Gems and Gemmology, 53, 240-241
  4. Badar M A, Safdar Hussain1, Shanawer Niaz, Saif Ur Rehman (2017) X-ray Diffraction Study of Aquamarine from Shigar Deposits, Skardu Valley, Northwest Pakistan, Int. J. Econ. Environ. Geol. 8 (4)33-40
  5. Bank Francisco, Professor Hermann Bank and Elena Villa (2001) Santa Maria aquamarine, The Journal of gemmology, 27 (5) 257-258
  6. Beal K.L, Lentz David R., Douglas C. Hall and Gregory Dunning (2010) Mineralogical, geochronological and geochemical characterization of Early Devonian Aquamarine bearing dykes of the Zealand Station beryl and molybdenite deposit, west central New Brunswick, Can. J. Earth Sci. 47:859-874
  7. Lee B. K and David R. LENTZ (2010) Aquamarine beryl from Zealand Station, Canada: a mineralogical and stable isotope study, Journal of Geosciences, 55, 57–67
  8. Blak Ana Regina, Sadao Isotani and Shigueo Watanabe (1982) Optical Absorption and Electron Spin Resonance in Blue and Green Natural Beryl, Phys. Chem Minerals, 8 161-166
  9. Bocchio Rosangela, Ilaria Adamo, and Franca Caucia (2009) Aquamarine from the Masino-Bregaglia Massif, Central Alps, Italy, Gems and Gemology, Fall, 204-207
  10. Bunnag Nantharat and Bhuwadol Wanthanachaisaeng (2014) Heat Treatment of Aquamarine, The 4thInternational Gem and Jewelry Conference, 97-100
  11. Cairncross Bruce, Ian C. Campbell, And Jan Marten Huizenga (1998) Topaz, Aquamarine, And Other Beryls From Klein Spitzkoppe, Namibia, Gems & Gemology, Summer, 114-125
  12. Cerny P and Hawthorne F. C(1976) Refractive Indices Versus Alkali Contents in Beryl: General Limitations and Applications to Some Pegmatitic Types, Canadian Mineralogist, 14, 491-497
  13. Chankhantha Chawalit, Panjawan Thanasuthipitak (2012) Heat Treatment Of Aquamarine And Morganite From Madagascar, 38th Congress on Science and Technology of Thailand.
  14. Choudary Gagan (2014) Aquamarine with unusually strong dichroism, Gems and Gemology, Fall, 244-245
  15. Danet Fabrice, Marie Schoor, Jean-Claude Boulliard, Daniel R. Neuville, Olivier Beyssac, and Vincent Bourgoin (2012) Inclusions in Aquamarine from Ambatofotsikely, Madagascar, Gems and Gemology, Fall, 205-208
  16. Danner J. M. Duroc-(1989) Medium-dark blue aquamarines from Tongafeno, Madagascar, with high physical and optical properties, and showing three-phase inclusions, J. Gemm., 21(7) 423-430
  17. Figueiredo M. O., Pereira Da Silva T., J. P. Veiga, C. Leal Gomes And V. De Andrade (2008) The Blue Colouring Of Beryls From Licungo, Mozambique: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study At The Iron K-Edge, Mineralogical Magazine, February 2008, 72(1), 175–178
  18. Filho Almeida Sampaio and Sighinolfi G.P. (1973) Contribution to the Crystal Chemistry of Beryl, Contr. Mineral. and Petrol. 38, 279-290
  19. Francis Carl A., Myles Felch, Alexander U. Falster & Douglas A. Bailey(2016) Aquamarine from Stoneham and Vicinity, Oxford County, Maine, Rocks & Minerals, 91:1, 28-35
  20. Fridrichová Jana, Peter Bac?ík , Petra Rusinová, Peter Antal, RadekŠkoda, ValériaBizovská, Marcel Miglierini (2015) Optical and crystal?chemical changes in Aquamarines and yellow beryls from Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam induced by heat treatment, Phys. Chem Minerals 42:287–302
  21. Gerasimova E. I., Vigasina M. F., Prokofiev V. Yu., Nagornaya E. V (2014) Inclusions in Aquamarine from the Suprunovskoye Pegmatite Deposit, Russia, Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition), 88(supp. 2): 1094
  22. Groat Lee A., George R. Rossman, M. Darby Dyar, David Turner, Paula M.B. Piccoli And Arthurj. Schultz, Luisa Ottolini (2010) Crystal Chemistry Of Dark Blue Aquamarine From The True Blue Showing, Yukon Territory, Canada, The Canadian Mineralogist 48, 597-613
  23. Groat Lee.A, Craig J.R. Hart, Lara L. Lewis, and Heather L.D.Neufeld (2005) Emerald and Aquamarine Mineralization in Canada, Geoscience Canada, 32 (2), 65-76
  24. Huong Le Thi-Thu, Tobias Häger, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Christoph Hauzenberger, Dietmar Schwarz, Pham Van Long, Ursula Wehmeister, Nguyen Ngoc Khoi, and Nguy Tuyet Nhung (2012) Gemstones From Vietnam: An Update, Gems And Gemology, Fall, 168-170
  25. Huong Le Thi-Thu, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Tobias Häger, Nguyen Ngoc Khoi, NguyTuyetNhung, WilawanAtichat, and VisutPisutha-Arnond (2011) Aquamarine from the thuongXuan District, ThanhHoa Province, Vietnam, Gems & Gemology Spring, 42-48
  26. IYER, L A. N. (1961). Indian Precious Stones., Bulletin Geological Survey of India, 18,89
  27. Jacobson Mark I. (1993) Aquamarine in the United States, Rocks & Minerals, 68:5, 306-319
  28. Kane Robert E.(1985) BERYL, Bicolor, gems and Gemology, 21, 232
  29. Kim Sungjae and Dong wook Shin (2014) Aquamarine from the Gilgit Baltistan of Northern Areas, Pakistan, The 4thInternational Gem and Jewelry Conference, 149-152
  30. Koivula John I. and Robert C. Katnmerling (1989) Fine Aquamarine from India, Gems and Gemology, Fall, 179-180
  31. Laurs Brendan M., Brendan M. and Alexander U Falster(2012) New gem discoveries in Ethiopia. file:///C:/Users/SANKAR/Downloads/newgemdiscoveriesinethiopia.pdf
  32. Lind T., K. Schmetzer and H. Bankt (1986) Blue and green beryls (Aquamarines and emeralds) of gem quality from Nigeria, Journal of gemology, 20, 1
  33. Linnen Robert L., David Turner, and Lee A. Groat (2006) A Fluid Inclusion Study of the Syenite-Hosted “True Blue” Aquamarine Occurrence, Yukon Territory, Canada, Gems and Gemology, 42, 114
  34. Lum, J., Viljoen, F., Cairncross, B., Frei, D.,(2016) Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of BERYL (AQUAMARINE) from the Erongo Volcanic Complex, Namibia, Journal of African Earth Sciences, doi: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2016.09 .006
  35. M1SHRA, B. P. and MOHANTY, B. K. (1995) Geology and Mineral Resources of Orissa. Society of Geoscientist and Allied Technologists, 185-202
  36. Mathew George (1998) Mineralogical Studies On The Gem Varieties Of Beryl From Orissa, India, Thesis submitted to The Maharaja Sayajirao University Of Baroda
  37. Mitchell G. Mihalyanuk and Ray Lett (2003) Composition of Longtung Beryl (Aquamarine) by ICPES/MS: A Comparison with Beryl Worldwide, British Columbia Geological Survey, Geological Fieldwork.
  38. Muntyan B L (2013) The Rediscovery of Long-Lost Aquamarine from The Sierrita Mountains, Arizona, Rocks & Minerals, 88:3, 222-230
  39. Nassa K (1996) On the identification and fade testing of Maxixe beryl, golden beryl and green aquamarine, Journal of Gemmology., 1996, 25, 2. 108-115
  40. Nassau K and Wood D.L (1973) Examination of Maxixe-type Blue and Green Beryl, Gems and Gemology ,Spring, 130-133
  41. Nassau Kurt, Betty E. Prescott and D.L Wood (1976) The deep blue Maxixe-type color center in beryl, American Mineralogist, 61, 100-107
  42. Nikbakht T, Kakuee O and Lamehi-Rachti M (2016) Study of Ionoluminescence behavior of the gemstones:Beryl (aquamarine variety), Opal and Topaz, Journal of Luminescence 171, 154-158
  43. Ostrooumov M. (2016) Aquamarine from a new primary deposit in Mexico, Gems and Gemology, Fall, 317-318
  44. Panjikar Jayshree and Aatish Panjikar (2014) Aquamarine from Karur, Tamil Nadu India, The 4th international Gem and Jewelry Conference, 145-148
  45. Parkin K.M, Bruce M. Loeffler and Roger G. Burns (1977) Mossbauer Spectra of Kyanite, Aquamarine and Cordierite Showing Intervalence Charge Transfer, Physc. Chem. Minerals 1, 301-311
  46. Proctor Keith (1984) Gem Pegmatites of Minas Gerais, Brazil: Exploration, Occurrence and Aquamarine Deposits, Gems & Gemology, Summer, 78-99
  47. Ruzeng Yang, Xu Hongyi and Li Minjie (2007) The eff ect of heat treatment on colour, quality and inclusions of aquamarine from China, The Journal of Gemmology, 30, 5 /6, 297-301
  48. Schwarz Dietmar, Jan Kanis2 and Dr Judith Kinnaird (1996) Emerald and green beryl from Central Nigeria, J. Gemm., 25, 2, 117-141
  49. Spinolo G., I. Fontana, and A. Galli (2007) Optical absorption spectra of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in beryl crystals, phys. stat. sol. (b) 244, 12, 4660–4668
  50. Turner David, Lee A. Groat. Craig J.R. Hart, James K. Mortensen, Robert L. Linnen, Gaston Giuliani, William Wengzynowski (2007) Mineralogical And Geochemical Study Of The True Blue Aquamarine Showing, Southern Yukon, The Canadian Mineralogist, 45, 203-227
  51. UNDP Technical Report (1983). Mineral Exploration and Development in Kerala., : UNDP, New York, 42
  52. Viana R.R, H. Jordt-Evangelista G. Magela da Costa and W. B. Stern (2002) Characterization of beryl (Aquamarine variety) from pegmatites of Minas Gerais, Brazil, PhysChem Minerals 29: 668 – 679
  53. Watters W. A. (2014) Zoned blue beryl from the Canaan area, Pikikiruna range, Nelson, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 6:5, 715-717
  54. Yang Hu and Ren Lu (2018) Aquamarine from Pakistan, Gems and Gemmology, Spring, LIV, 98-101
  55. Zhaolin Li, Yanhua Mao, Lihong Lei, ZhiliQiu, and Hecai Niu (1994) Physicochemical conditions of the formation of Beryl and Aquamarine in Mufushan Granopegmatite deposit, Hunan Province, china, Chineser journal of Geochemistry, 13,4, 326-339

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 4 | Issue 11 | November-December 2018
Date of Publication : 2018-12-30
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 342-356
Manuscript Number : IJSRST18401164
Publisher : Technoscience Academy

Print ISSN : 2395-6011, Online ISSN : 2395-602X

Cite This Article :

Nazia Sultana, Sankara Pitchaiah Podila, " Aquamarine Gemstone", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology(IJSRST), Print ISSN : 2395-6011, Online ISSN : 2395-602X, Volume 4, Issue 11, pp.342-356, November-December-2018. Available at doi :
Journal URL :

Article Preview